Tissue culture-induced genetic and epigenetic alterations in rice pure-lines, F1 hybrids and polyploids
- Xiaoran Wang†1,
- Rui Wu†1, 6,
- Xiuyun Lin3,
- Yan Bai1,
- Congdi Song1,
- Xiaoming Yu1, 2,
- Chunming Xu1,
- Na Zhao4,
- Yuzhu Dong5Email author and
- Bao Liu1Email author
© Wang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 27 January 2013
Accepted: 26 April 2013
Published: 5 May 2013
Genetic and epigenetic alterations can be invoked by plant tissue culture, which may result in heritable changes in phenotypes, a phenomenon collectively termed somaclonal variation. Although extensive studies have been conducted on the molecular nature and spectrum of tissue culture-induced genomic alterations, the issue of whether and to what extent distinct plant genotypes, e.g., pure-lines, hybrids and polyploids, may respond differentially to the tissue culture condition remains poorly understood.
We investigated tissue culture-induced genetic and epigenetic alterations in a set of rice genotypes including two pure-lines (different subspecies), a pair of reciprocal F1 hybrids parented by the two pure-lines, and a pair of reciprocal tetraploids resulted from the hybrids. Using two molecular markers, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP), both genetic and DNA methylation alterations were detected in calli and regenerants from all six genotypes, but genetic alteration is more prominent than epigenetic alteration. While significant genotypic difference was observed in frequencies of both types of alterations, only genetic alteration showed distinctive features among the three types of genomes, with one hybrid (N/9) being exceptionally labile. Surprisingly, difference in genetic alteration frequencies between the pair of reciprocal F1 hybrids is much greater than that between the two pure-line subspecies. Difference also exists in the pair of reciprocal tetraploids, but is to a less extent than that between the hybrids. The steady-state transcript abundance of genes involved in DNA repair and DNA methylation was significantly altered in both calli and regenerants, and some of which were correlated with the genetic and/or epigenetic alterations.
Our results, based on molecular marker analysis of ca. 1,000 genomic loci, document that genetic alteration is the major cause of somaclonal variation in rice, which is concomitant with epigenetic alterations. Perturbed expression by tissue culture of a set of 41 genes encoding for enzymes involved in DNA repair and DNA methylation is associated with both genetic and epigenetic alterations. There exist fundamental differences among distinct genotypes, pure-lines, hybrids and tetraploids, in propensities of generating both genetic and epigenetic alterations under the tissue culture condition. Parent-of-origin has a conspicuous effect on the alteration frequencies.
Plant tissue culture, being comprised of sequential dedifferentiation (formation of callus) and re-differentiation (regeneration into plants) phases [1, 2], represents a traumatic stress to plant cells and often provokes an array of genetic and epigenetic instabilities . At least a portion of the genetic and/or epigenetic alterations can be manifested as heritable phenotypic changes, and which is collectively termed somaclonal variation . Based on the complexity as well as the often genetic-context-dependent features of somaclonal variation, Phillips and colleagues (1994) proposed that somaclonal variation is a “self-imposed” mutagenesis, which can be largely attributable to the breakdown of normal cellular controls for genetic and epigenetic integrity .
Although extensive studies have been conducted on the molecular nature and spectrum of tissue culture-induced genomic alterations [6–11], whether and to what extent distinct plant genotypes, e.g., pure-lines, hybrids and polyploids, may respond differentially to the tissue culture condition remain to be fully understood.
The difference as well as its attendant biological effects between a hybrid (by extension an allopolyploid) genome and that of a pure-line are fundamental and myriad, as being reflected by both their distinct evolutionary trajectories as biological species and agricultural utilization as different crops. An issue bearing both theoretical and applied implications is whether and to what extent the distinct types of genomes, pure-line, hybrid and polyploid, are different under various environmental conditions . Given the unique properties of plant tissue culture, mentioned above, it is of interest to compare the different types of genomes under the tissue culture condition with respect to genomic instability. Hitherto, this issue has been sparsely addressed.
We recently reported in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) that there exists a sharp difference in the degree of both genetic and epigenetic instabilities at randomly sampled genomic loci under tissue culture between F1 hybrids and their parental pure lines, with the former being highly stable while the later highly mutable . This trend, however, was not observed in a set of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and their F1 hybrids, in which the frequencies of both genetic and epigenetic alterations were largely dependent on genotypes, and F1 hybrids were not more stable than inbred parents . Although this discrepancy can be explained by difference in plant taxa, more investigations involving different plants are needed in order to unravel possible general rules. Moreover, an allopolyploid genome that possesses distinct properties from those of both a pure-line and a F1 hybrid has not been assessed for its possible differential response with regard to genetic and epigenetic stability to tissue culture.
In this study, we investigated tissue culture-induced genetic and epigenetic alterations in a set of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes including two pure-lines (different subspecies, japonica and indica), a pair of reciprocal F1 hybrids parented by the two pure-lines, and a pair of reciprocal tetraploids resulted from the hybrids. There are dual advantages to use the rice system for this investigation, i.e., its unrivaled rich genomic information as a monocot model, and its status as a staple food crop for two-thirds of the human population [15, 16]. We aimed to explore whether and to what extent these three distinct types of rice genotypes may respond differentially to the tissue culture condition with respect of genetic and epigenetic alterations, and their possible connectivity with perturbed expression of critical genes involved in DNA repair and DNA methylation.
Genetic alteration in calli and regenerants of rice pure-lines, their reciprocal F1 hybrids, and tetraploids
The most dramatic difference in genetic alteration frequencies are observed between the pair of reciprocal F1 hybrids, with calli and regenerants of N/9 (Nipponbare as maternal parent) showing more than 30-fold more alterations than those of 9/N (93–11 as maternal parent), and nearly all the alterations are of the loss-type (Figure 1a; Additional file 2). For the pair of reciprocal tetraploids, although calli and regenerants of NN/99 (whole-gnome doubling, or WGD of N/9) also showed higher frequencies of alteration than those of 99/NN (WGD of 9/N), the difference is much smaller in magnitude than that between the reciprocal hybrids, and the alterations are also predominantly of the loss-type (Figure 1a; Additional file 2). Across all six genotypes, it appears that the F1 hybrid N/9 showed the highest frequencies of genetic alteration (almost exclusively of the loss-type), followed by pure-line 93–11 (predominantly of the gain-type), while all the rest four genotypes showed much lower frequencies of alterations. However, it is notable that although the pair of tetraploids (NN/99 and 99/NN) showed similarly lower genetic alteration frequencies (relative to F1 hybrid 9/N) as the two pure-lines, they are of distinct types, i.e., predominantly band loss in tetraploids vs. band gain in pure-lines (Figure 1a).
To further test if the appeared genotypic differences in generating the genetic alterations as a result of tissue culture are statistically significant, we performed ANOVA and LSD-based multiple comparisons by including all regenerants for each of the six genotypes. We found that N/9 is indeed significantly different from all the rest five genotypes, while differences in all the rest pairwise comparisons of the five genotypes did not reach a statistically significant level (Figure 1b), verifying that N/9 is uniquely prone to generating genetic alterations under the tissue culture condition.
Epigenetic alteration in calli and regenerants of rice pure-lines, their reciprocal F1 hybrids, and tetraploids
MSAP is a modified version of AFLP by substituting the MseI enzyme with a pair of cytosine methylation-sensitive isoschizomers, HpaII and MspI. This pair of enzymes recognize the same tetranucleotide restriction site (5’-CCGG) but have differential sensitivity to methylation states of the two cytosines: HpaII will not cut if either of the cytosines in the double-strand is methylated, whereas MspI will not cut if the external cytosine is fully- or hemi- (single-strand) methylated . Thus, for a given DNA sample, the internal cytosine methylation in double-strand, or external cytosine methylation in single-strand, at the assayed 5’-CCGG sites, can be unequivocally identified by the MSAP marker . For clarity, we hereby refer to these two types of patterns as CG methylation and CHG methylation, respectively.
Next, we tabulated the alteration frequencies for further defined methylation patterns in calli and/or regenerants compared with their corresponding seed-plant controls of each genotype. Each of the CG and CHG methylation patterns can be further divided into two subtypes, i.e., hyper- and hypomethylation. Compared with their corresponding seed-plants, it is evident that calli and regenerants of all six genotypes showed both hyper- and hypomethylation alterations, which, in descending order, are CG hypo, CHG hypo, CG hyper, and CHG hyper (Figure 2c,d). Although difference clearly exists across the six genotypes, no distinct signatures are recognizable with regard to the three types of genotypes, i.e., pure-lines, F1 hybrids and tetraploids (Figure. 2c,d), which is in contrast with the genetic alterations (Figure 1a). Notably, taken all four subtypes of methylation patterns together, the alteration frequencies (Figure 2e) are markedly lower than those of the genetic alterations revealed by AFLP (Figure 1a). This reveals an important observation of this study, that is, in rice the major component of somaclonal variation is genetic rather than epigenetic. This contrasts with other studied plant species by the same methodologies, for examples, sorghum  and maize , in which the two types of alterations were found to occur at similar frequencies. Strikingly, calli and regenerants of hybrid N/9, which showed the highest frequencies of genetic alteration (Figure 1a) is among those showing the lowest frequencies of methylation alteration (Figure 2e), suggesting that tissue culture-induced genetic and epigenetic alterations in rice are uncoupled, and hence, likely controlled by distinct mechanisms, as also corroborated by the expression analysis of relevant genes, detailed in subsequent sections.
ANOVA and LSD-based statistical analysis was also conducted to test for significance of genotypic differences in the frequencies of tissue culture-induced hyper- and hypomethylation alterations. Results showed that (i) for frequencies of hypermethylation alteration, seven of the 15 pairwise comparisons (Nip vs. NN/99, 93–11 vs. N/9, 93–11 vs. NN/99, N/9 vs. 9/N, N/9 vs. NN/99, 9/N vs. NN/99, and NN/99 vs. 99/NN) showed statistically significant difference (Figure 2f) ; (ii) for frequencies of hypomethylation alteration, nine of the 15 pairwise comparisons (Nip vs. N/9, Nip vs. 99/NN, 93–11 vs. N/9, 93–11 vs. 99/NN, N/9 vs. 9/N, N/9 vs. 99/NN, 9/N vs. NN/99, 9/N vs. 99/NN, and NN/99 vs. 99/NN) showed statistically significant difference (Figure 2g).
Chromosomal distribution and functional relevance of the genomic loci underlying tissue culture-induced genetic and epigenetic alterations
Functional classification of sequenced AFLP and MSAP variant bands in calli and/or regenerants
Category (Based on BlastX)
Number and (%) of variant
Number and (%) of variant
Putative protein-coding gene
Transposon and retrotransposon
Altered transcript abundance by tissue culture of genes encoding for enzymes involved in DNA repair and DNA methylation
It has been suggested that a major cause for tissue culture-induced genetic and epigenetic alterations can be attributed to the breakdown of normal cellular controls for genetic and epigenetic fidelity . It is known that three major repair pathways play essential roles in maintaining genetic fidelity under normal conditions, namely, somatic homologous recombination (SHR), mismatch repair (MMR) and cell-cycle checkpoint (checkpoint) [18–21]. Thus, it is conceivable that genetic alterations induced by tissue culture are probably related to perturbed- or mis-expression of the genes encoding for enzymes of these pathways under the condition. Similarly, the level and pattern of cytosine methylation are established and maintained in plants by interlaced actions of at least three categories of enzymes, i.e., cytosine methyltransferases, active demethylases and several Argonaute proteins (AGOs) related to biogenesis of a specific type of 24 nt small interference (si) RNAs [22–24]. Accumulating evidence also indicates that the at least the active demethylating process by the demethylases (DME) also involves nucleotide excision repairs [25, 26], while it has been established that methylated and unmethylated cytosines have different propensities for single nucleotide transversion mutations via deamination . Together, it is conceivable that tissue culture-induced alterations in DNA sequence and methylation may result from changed expression and/or activity of one or more of all the aforementioned enzymes under the condition. In addition, it also can be envisioned that some or all these cellular machineries would intrinsically interact, and produce the collective results of both genetic and epigenetic instabilities.
Correlations between tissue culture-induced genetic/epigenetic alterations and altered transcript abundance of genes encoding for enzymes involved in DNA repair and DNA methylation
Although the molecular basis underlying the phenomenon of somaclonal variation remains to be fully understood, an array of recent investigations have provided substantive evidence that both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms are involved [8, 10, 11, 28–30]. This is consistent with the earlier insights perceived by Phillips and colleagues that plant tissue culture-induced variation is a self-imposed mutagenesis as a consequence of disrupted normal cellular controls . For example, a detailed investigation in Arabidopsis showed that expression of a large number of genes involved in chromatin regulation was preferentially altered (predominantly up-regulated) in cell suspension cultures relative to the seedling plants, and which was found to be concomitant with a shift in profiles of the two size-groups of siRNAs (21 nt vs. 24 nt) that play distinct regulatory roles . It was suggested that the mis-regulation of chromatin genes and hence loss of epigenetic targeting (by siRNAs) under the tissue culture condition is largely responsible for the occurrence of genomic instability in the cell suspension cultures . In parallel, genome re-sequencing analysis indicated that nucleotide changes, including single base substitutions (SNPs) and small insertion/deletions (indels) with distinctive molecular spectra from those of spontaneously accumulated natural mutations, have occurred extensively in regenerants of both Arabidopsis and rice . Interestingly, although reactivation of transposable elements (TEs) by tissue culture has been considered a general phenomenon associated with plant tissue culture [32–37], especially well-documented in rice [7, 38–40], this was found totally absent in Arabidopsis, pointing to fundamental differences in the nature of molecular underpinnings of somaclonal variations in different plant taxa.
From an evolutionary point of view, merging of two divergent genomes (hybridization) and doubling of an existing genome, either of one genome (autopolyploidy) or a hybrid genome (allopolyploidy) represent revolutionary events often with cardinal biological effects, as they may lead to rapid organismal diversification and even stasipatric speciation [41, 42]. A hallmark of nascent hybrid and polyploid genomes compared with that of a pure-line is their liability to change, which may confer enhanced evolvability compared to that of a pure-line [41, 43]. Thus, the issue of whether and to what extent a nascent or established homoploid hybrid or polyploid genome would differ from that of a pure-line under various environmental conditions has drawn much attention in recent years [12, 42]. This is because, apart from apparent evolutionary significance, the issue bears applied implications given that many important agricultural crops are hybrids or polyploids or their derivatives . Given the unique attributes of plant tissue culture [1–3, 5], it is of clear interest to explore the possible differences in response to this process between the distinct genomes of pure-lines, hybrids, and polyploids.
We recently found in sorghum that there exists a dramatic difference in frequencies of both genetic and epigenetic alterations induced by tissue culture between F1 hybrids and their parental pure lines, with the former being significantly more stable than the later . In contrast, a set of maize inbred lines and their F1 hybrids did not show distinct differences in tissue culture-induced genetic and epigenetic alterations based on the same analytic tools , underscoring, again, differences in different plant taxa responding to tissue culture. The discrepancy also calls for more investigations using additional plant taxa for the purpose of unraveling possible generalities. Here, using six genotypes of rice which included two pure-line cultivars representing the japonica and indica subspecies of Oryza sativa L., a pair of reciprocal F1 hybrids parented by the two pure-lines, and a pair of reciprocal tetraploids resulted from the pair of F1 hybrids, we have further explored the issue, and extended the earlier study scope by including also polyploids. Several novel observations were made: (i) both genetic and DNA methylation alterations were detected in calli and regenerants from all six genotypes, but genetic alterations are more prevalent than epigenetic alterations; (ii) significant genotypic difference was observed in frequencies of both types of alterations, but only genetic alteration showed distinctive features among the three types of genomes, with one hybrid (N/9) showing an exceptionally high frequency of alteration; (iii) most surprisingly, difference in genetic alteration frequencies between the pair of reciprocal F1 hybrids is much greater than that between the two pure-line subspecies, and this strong parent-of-origin effect was significantly attenuated in the pair of reciprocal tetraploids; (iv) the steady-state transcript abundance of genes involved in DNA repair and DNA methylation was significantly altered in both calli and regenerants, and some of which were correlated with the genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. We caution that although our results are based on molecular marker analysis of relatively lager numbers of randomly sampled loci (ca. 1,000 for each of AFLP and MSAP), they are certainly pale compared with whole genome sequencing-based approaches. Nonetheless, our results have provided fresh testable entries for future more in-depth investigations on the molecular mechanisms of plant somaclonal variation by using systems biology approaches including whole genome re-sequencing, transcriptome profiling, methylome analysis.
We have shown in this study that although molecular level somaclonal variation occurred in all three kinds of distinct rice genotypes, i.e., pure-lines, F1 hybrids and tetraploids, there exist fundamental differences among them in their propensities of generating both genetic and epigenetic alterations under the tissue culture condition. Genetic alteration is the major constituent of somaclonal variation in rice, and which is concomitant with epigenetic alteration in the form of cytosine DNA methylation patterns. In addition, parent-of-origin effect plays a major role in the genetic alteration frequencies of the pair of reciprocal hybrids, thus further implicating partitioning of epigenetic mechanisms in somaclonal variation, although which can be manifested as mainly genetic alterations. This intricate genetic and epigenetic interlacing is further corroborated by the strong association of perturbed expression of genes encoding for enzymes involved in DNA repair and DNA methylation with both genetic and epigenetic alterations.
The six rice lines used in this investigation included two rice pure-line cultivar, Nipponbare (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) and 93–11 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica), their reciprocal F1 hybrids (Nipponbare/93-11 and 93-11/Nipponbare, the first line being the maternal parent) and two tetraploids (NN/99 and 99/NN) resulted from the pair of F1 hybrids by colchicine-mediated whole-genome doubling. Individual plants of two pure-line cultivars were maintained by strict selfing in our laboratory for many generations before used for the F1 hybrids and tetraploids construction. Authenticities of constructed plants were validated by both cytology and molecular marker analysis before tissue culture.
Tissue culture and regeneration
Calli were induced from germinating seeds of the six lines on Murashige-Skoog solid medium containing 2 mg/L 2,4-D. After incubation at 26 ± 1°C in darkness for about one month, calli were collected and transferred into NMB solid medium. After two months cultured at 26 ± 1°C in darkness, embryogenic calli were selected and subcultured on modified NMB medium and cultured at 26 ± 1°C under a 14h photoperiod for plant regeneration . Regenerated shoots over 5 cm in height were transferred onto a rooting medium (growth-regulator free half strength MS medium containing 2% (w/v) sucrose and 0.68% (w/v) agar for root development and shoot strengthening. When grown to ~10 cm in height, the plantlets with healthy roots were removed from medium, rinsed in tap water and transplanted into a mixture of disinfected soil and grown under normal greenhouse conditions.
DNA extraction, AFLP and MSAP analysis
Genomic DNA was isolated from expanded leaves by the high-salt CTAB method . The standard amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) protocol  was followed with modifications for silver staining . The methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) protocol was exactly as described . For both markers, two technical replications (starting from independent DNA isolation) were performed and only clear and completely reproducible bands were scored.
Recovery and sequencing of variant AFLP and MSAP bands
Bands showing various patterns of genetic or methylation alterations in calli and/or regenerated plants (regenerants) relative to the donor seed-plants were eluted from the silver-stained AFLP or MSAP gels and re-amplified with the appropriate selective primer combinations. The sizes of the PCR products were verified by agarose gel electrophoresis and then cloned into the pMD18-T vector (Takara Biotech. Inc., Dalian, China). The cloned variant bands were sequenced with vector primers by automated sequencing. The Advanced BlastN and BlastX programs at the NCBI website (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) were used for homology analyses. The cloned variant AFLP and MSAP bands were mapped in silico based on the rice whole genome sequence (http://rice.genomics.org.cn/rice/index2.jsp).The Chi-squared test was used to test for the random or nonrandom distribution of the variant bands across the 12 chromosomes of the rice genome (Additional file 4).
Quantitative real-time-reverse transcriptase (RT) -PCR analysis
Total RNA was isolated using Trizol reagent (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer's instructions and then treated with RNase-free DNase I (New England Biolabs) to remove any contaminating genomic DNA, and the reverse transcription (RT) reaction was performed using an RT system (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, USA) following the manufacturer’s protocol. Based on functional similarity, 41 genes were selected which included genes encoding for putative DNA methyltransferases (six), 5-methylcytosin DNA glycosylases (two), siRNA-related proteins (four), somatic homologous recombination proteins (SHR, 10), mismatch repair proteins (MMR, 11) and checkpoint proteins (eight). The house keeping gene β-actin, eEF-1a and UBQ5 were used as internal control. Primers used for q-RT-PCR were designed by the Primer 5 program (Premier Biosoft International, Palo Alto, USA). Forty-four pairs (including three for housekeeping genes used for normalization) of high quality primers with amplification efficiencies in the range of 92.5% to 104.9% were selected for study. The sequences, expected amplicon sizes and amplification efficiencies for all the primer pairs were presented in Additional file 7. The q-RT-PCR amplification was performed using an Applied Biosystems StepOnePlus™ Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA) and the SYBR Premix Ex Taq (Takara) as a DNA-specific fluorescent dye. Conditions of q-RT-PCR were as reported . Data were analyzed by using the software provided by ABI Company (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA) and calculated by the 2–ΔΔCt method, according to previous studies [48, 49].
The one-way ANOVA analysis was performed to statistically test for genotypic differences in the tissue culture-induced genetic and epigenetic variations, including ‘genetic alteration’, ‘methylation level difference’, ‘hypermethylation alteration’ and ‘hypomethylation alteration’, by analyzing the three or five independent regenerants from each of the six rice genotypes. Correlations were tested using the Pearson correlation analysis based on the data for alteration frequencies calculated based on the AFLP and MSAP variant frequencies and altered gene expression. Specifically, the ‘bivariate correlation, two-tailed, correlation coefficients, Pearson’s’ within the software SPSS v.14.0 (SPSS Inc., USA) was used. For testing statistic significance in the gene expression differences of the q-RT-PCR data, the SPSS v.14.0 software package (SPSS Inc., USA) was used by applying the one-way ANOVA test. Means were compared by the Least Significant Difference (LSD); when the p-value was less than 0.05, the difference was regarded as statistically significant.
This work was supported by the State Key Basic Research and Development Plan of China (2011CB100205), grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30990243 and 31200198), and the Programme for Introducing Talents to Universities (B07017).
- Grafi G, Avivi Y: Stem cells: a lesson from dedifferentiation. Trend Biotechnol. 2004, 22 (8): 388-389. 10.1016/j.tibtech.2004.06.001.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Grafi G, Florentin A, Ransbotyn V, Morgenstern Y: The stem cell state in plant development and in response to stress. Front in Plant Sci. 2011, 2: 53.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- McClintock B: The significance of responses of the genome to challenge. Science. 1984, 226 (4676): 792-801. 10.1126/science.15739260.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Larkin PJ, Scowcroft WR: Somaclonal variation — a novel source of variability from cell cultures for plant improvement. Theor Appl Genet. 1981, 60 (4): 197-214. 10.1007/BF02342540.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Phillips RL, Kaeppler SM, Olhoft P: Genetic instability of plant tissue cultures: breakdown of normal controls. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1994, 91 (12): 5222-5226. 10.1073/pnas.91.12.5222.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Neelakandan AK, Wang K: Recent progress in the understanding of tissue culture-induced genome level changes in plants and potential applications. Plant Cell Rep. 2012, 31 (4): 597-620. 10.1007/s00299-011-1202-z.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Miyao A, Nakagome M, Ohnuma T, Yamagata H, Kanamori H, Katayose Y, Takahashi A, Matsumoto T, Hirochika H: Molecular spectrum of somaclonal variation in regenerated rice revealed by whole-genome sequencing. Plant Cell Physiol. 2012, 53 (1): 256-264. 10.1093/pcp/pcr172.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang QM, Wang L: An evolutionary view of plant tissue culture: somaclonal variation and selection. Plant Cell Rep. 2012, 31 (9): 1535-1547. 10.1007/s00299-012-1281-5.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jiang C, Mithani A, Gan X, Belfield EJ, Klingler JP, Zhu JK, Ragoussis J, Mott R, Harberd NP: Regenerant Arabidopsis lineages display a distinct genome-wide spectrum of mutations conferring variant phenotypes. Current Biology: CB. 2011, 21 (16): 1385-1390. 10.1016/j.cub.2011.07.002.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Miguel C, Marum L: An epigenetic view of plant cells cultured in vitro: somaclonal variation and beyond. J Exp Bot. 2011, 62 (11): 3713-3725. 10.1093/jxb/err155.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rodriguez-Enriquez J, Dickinson HG, Grant-Downton RT: MicroRNA misregulation: an overlooked factor generating somaclonal variation?. Trends Plant Sci. 2011, 16 (5): 242-248. 10.1016/j.tplants.2011.03.002.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Adams KL, Wendel JF: Polyploidy and genome evolution in plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2005, 8 (2): 135-141. 10.1016/j.pbi.2005.01.001.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang M, Xu C, Yan H, Zhao N, von Wettstein D, Liu B: Limited tissue culture-induced mutations and linked epigenetic modifications in F hybrids of sorghum pure lines are accompanied by increased transcription of DNA methyltransferases and 5-methylcytosine glycosylases. Plant J. 2009, 57 (4): 666-679. 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03719.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yu XM, Li X, Zhao XX, Jiang LL, Miao GJ, Pang JS, Qi X, Liu B: Tissue culture-induced genomic alteration in maize (Zea mays) inbred lines and F1 hybrids. Ann Appl Biol. 2011, 158 (3): 237-247. 10.1111/j.1744-7348.2011.00458.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jiang Y, Cai Z, Xie W, Long T, Yu H, Zhang Q: Rice functional genomics research: progress and implications for crop genetic improvement. Biotechnol Adv. 2012, 30 (5): 1059-1070. 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2011.08.013.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huang X, Lu T, Han B: Resequencing rice genomes: an emerging new era of rice genomics. Trend Genet. 2013, 29 (4): 225-232. 10.1016/j.tig.2012.12.001.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- McClelland M, Nelson M, Raschke E: Effect of site-specific modification on restriction endonucleases and DNA modification methyltransferases. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994, 22 (17): 3640-3659. 10.1093/nar/22.17.3640.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Culligan KM, Hays JB: Arabidopsis MutS homologs-AtMSH2, AtMSH3, AtMSH6, and a novel AtMSH7-form three distinct protein heterodimers with different specificities for mismatched DNA. Plant Cell. 2000, 12 (6): 991-1002.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Zhou BB, Elledge SJ: The DNA damage response: putting checkpoints in perspective. Nature. 2000, 408 (6811): 433-439. 10.1038/35044005.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kimura S, Sakaguchi K: DNA repair in plants. Chem Rev. 2006, 106 (2): 753-766. 10.1021/cr040482n.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yin H, Zhang X, Liu J, Wang Y, He J, Yang T, Hong X, Yang Q, Gong Z: Epigenetic regulation, somatic homologous recombination, and abscisic acid signaling are influenced by DNA polymerase epsilon mutation in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2009, 21 (2): 386-402. 10.1105/tpc.108.061549.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cao X, Jacobsen SE: Role of the arabidopsis DRM methyltransferases in de novo DNA methylation and gene silencing. Curr Biol. 2002, 12 (13): 1138-1144. 10.1016/S0960-9822(02)00925-9.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cao X, Jacobsen SE: Locus-specific control of asymmetric and CpNpG methylation by the DRM and CMT3 methyltransferase genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002, 99 (4): 16491-16498. 10.1073/pnas.162371599.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gehring M, Henikoff S: DNA methylation dynamics in plant genomes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007, 1769 (5–6): 276-286.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gehring M, Reik W, Henikoff S: DNA demethylation by DNA repair. Trend Genet. 2009, 25 (2): 82-90. 10.1016/j.tig.2008.12.001.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kapoor A, Agius F, Zhu JK: Preventing transcriptional gene silencing by active DNA demethylation. FEBS Lett. 2005, 579 (26): 5889-5898. 10.1016/j.febslet.2005.08.039.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Coulondre C, Miller JH, Farabaugh PJ, Gilbert W: Molecular basis of base substitution hotspots in Escherichia coli. Nature. 1978, 274 (5673): 775-780. 10.1038/274775a0.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Krizova K, Fojtova M, Depicker A, Kovarik A: Cell culture-induced gradual and frequent epigenetic reprogramming of invertedly repeated tobacco transgene epialleles. Plant Physiol. 2009, 149 (3): 1493-1504. 10.1104/pp.108.133165.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kaeppler SM, Kaeppler HF, Rhee Y: Epigenetic aspects of somaclonal variation in plants. Plant Mol Biol. 2000, 43 (2–3): 179-188.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rhee Y, Sekhon RS, Chopra S, Kaeppler S: Tissue culture-induced novel epialleles of a Myb transcription factor encoded by pericarp color1 in maize. Genetics. 2010, 186 (3): 843-855. 10.1534/genetics.110.117929.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tanurdzic M, Vaughn MW, Jiang H, Lee TJ, Slotkin RK, Sosinski B, Thompson WF, Doerge RW, Martienssen RA: Epigenomic consequences of immortalized plant cell suspension culture. PLoS Biol. 2008, 6 (12): 2880-2895.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Madlung A, Comai L: The effect of stress on genome regulation and structure. Ann Bot. 2004, 94 (4): 481-495. 10.1093/aob/mch172.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Grandbastien MA, Audeon C, Bonnivard E, Casacuberta JM, Chalhoub B, Costa AP, Le QH, Melayah D, Petit M, Poncet C, et al: Stress activation and genomic impact of Tnt1 retrotransposons in Solanaceae. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2005, 110 (1–4): 229-241.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lisch D: Epigenetic regulation of transposable elements in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2009, 60: 43-66. 10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092744.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lisch D: How important are transposons for plant evolution?. Nat Rev Genet. 2012, 14 (1): 49-61.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yaakov B, Kashkush K: Methylation, transcription, and rearrangements of transposable elements in synthetic allopolyploids. Int J Plant Genomics. 2011, Article ID: 569826.Google Scholar
- Pecinka A, Mittelsten Scheid O: Stress-induced chromatin changes: a critical view on their heritability. Plant Cell Physiol. 2012, 53 (5): 801-808. 10.1093/pcp/pcs044.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hirochika H, Sugimoto K, Otsuki Y, Tsugawa H, Kanda M: Retrotransposons of rice involved in mutations induced by tissue culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1996, 93 (15): 7783-7788. 10.1073/pnas.93.15.7783.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sabot F, Picault N, El-Baidouri M, Llauro C, Chaparro C, Piegu B, Roulin A, Guiderdoni E, Delabastide M, McCombie R, et al: Transpositional landscape of the rice genome revealed by paired-end mapping of high-throughput re-sequencing data. Plant J. 2011, 66 (2): 241-246. 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04492.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lin C, Lin X, Hu L, Yang J, Zhou T, Long L, Xu C, Xing S, Qi B, Dong Y, et al: Dramatic genotypic difference in, and effect of genetic crossing on, tissue culture-induced mobility of retrotransposon Tos17 in rice. Plant Cell Rep. 2012, 31 (11): 2057-2063. 10.1007/s00299-012-1316-y.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Soltis PS, Soltis DE: The role of hybridization in plant speciation. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2009, 60: 561-588. 10.1146/annurev.arplant.043008.092039.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Feldman M, Levy AA: Genome evolution due to allopolyploidization in wheat. Genetics. 2012, 192 (3): 763-774. 10.1534/genetics.112.146316.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Otto SP: The evolutionary consequences of polyploidy. Cell. 2007, 131 (3): 452-462. 10.1016/j.cell.2007.10.022.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ngezahayo F, Xu CM, Wang HY, Jiang LL, Pang JS, Liu B: Tissue culture-induced transpositional activity of mPing is correlated with cytosine methylation in rice. BMC Plant Biol. 2009, 9: 91. 10.1186/1471-2229-9-91.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kidwell KK, Osborn TC: Simple plant DNA isolation procedures. Plant genomes: methods for genetic and physicalmapping. Edited by: Beckman JS, Osborn TC. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer AcademicPublishers: 1992, 1-13.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vos P, Hogers R, Bleeker M, Reijans M, Van DLT, Hornes A, Frijters A, Pot J, Peleman J, Kuiper M: AFLP, et al: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995, 23 (23): 4407-4414.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dong ZY, Wang YM, Zhang ZJ, Shen Y, Lin XY, Ou XF, Han FP, Liu B: Extent and pattern of DNA methylation alteration in rice lines derived from introgressive hybridization of rice and Zizania latifolia Griseb. Theor Appl Genet. 2006, 113 (113): 196-205.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li QQ, Skinner J, Bennett JE: Evaluation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR studies in Candida glabrata following azole treatment. BMC Mol Biol. 2012, 13: 22. 10.1186/1471-2199-13-22.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hu N, Qian L, Hu Y, Shou J-Z, Wang C, Giffen C, Wang Q-H, Wang Y, Goldstein A, Emmert-Buck M, et al: Quantitative real-time RT-PCR validation of differential mRNA expression of SPARC, FADD, Fascin, COL7A1, CK4, TGM3, ECM1, PPL and EVPL in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. BMC Cancer. 2006, 6 (1): 33. 10.1186/1471-2407-6-33.PubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.