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Table 3 Effect of sediment type on flavonoids in the aboveground and belowground tissues of seagrass Thalassia hemprichii. 1:0, the in-situ sediment without combining with coarse beach sand was added in the tank; 1:1, the combination of half in-situ sediment and half coarse beach sand was added in the tank; 1:2, the combination of 1/3 in-situ sediment and 2/3 coarse beach sand was added in the tank

From: Sand supplementation favors tropical seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in eutrophic bay: implications for seagrass restoration and management

Flavonoids Aboveground tissue Belowground tissue
1:0 1:1 1:2 1:0 1:1 1:2
content (μg/g) ratio (%) content (μg/g) ratio (%) content (μg/g) ratio (%) content (μg/g) ratio (%) content (μg/g) ratio (%) content (μg/g) ratio (%)
catechin 0.0223 ± 0.0065a 0.55 0.0090 ± 0.0041b 0.33 0.0115 ± 0.0033b 0.43 14.4433 ± 5.4480A 67.56 1.1228 ± 0.0646B 31.20 0.2845 ± 0.0281C 10.20
epicatechin nd   nd   nd   1.2517 ± 0.1782A 5.85 0.0437 ± 0.0016B 1.22 ndC  
taxifolin nd   0.0068 0.25 nd   0.0219 ± 0.0101A 0.10 0.0146 ± 0.0096A 0.41 0.0234 ± 0.0119A 0.84
galuteolin 1.9969 ± 0.6946a 49.97 1.5255 ± 0.9832a 55.46 1.6700 ± 1.0298a 62.55 0.0033 ± 0.0013A 0.02 0.0069 ± 0.0037A 0.19 0.0078 ± 0.0029A 0.28
rutin 0.0049 ± 0.0041a 0.12 0.0024 ± 0.0007a 0.09 0.0026 ± 0.0009a 0.1 0.0116 ± 0.0057A 0.05 0.0025 ± 0.0001B 0.07 0.0101 ± 0.0063AB 0.36
isoquercitrin 0.4959 ± 0.2699a 12.41 0.1903 ± 0.1332a 6.94 0.2901 ± 0.1066a 10.87 5.2404 ± 1.1379A 24.51 1.4558 ± 0.4994B 40.45 2.3086 ± 1.1878B 82.76
astragalin nd   nd   nd   0.0135 ± 0.0016A 0.06 0.0102 ± 0.0011B 0.28 0.0119 ± 0.0016AB 0.43
diosmin 0.0027 ± 0.0006a 0.07 0.0040 ± 0.0008a 0.15 0.0034 ± 0.0007a 0.13 Nd   nd   nd  
quercetin 0.0439 ± 0.0166a 1.10 0.0076 ± 0.0061b 0.28 0.0165 ± 0.0047b 0.62 0.3283 ± 0.0829A 1.54 0.0544 ± 0.0068B 1.51 0.0282 ± 0.0110C 1.01
naringenin 0.0175 ± 0.0095a 0.44 0.0087 ± 0.0021a 0.32 0.0067 ± 0.0018a 0.25 0.0073 ± 0.0015A 0.03 0.0187 ± 0.0073B 0.52 0.0076 ± 0.0035A 0.27
luteolin 1.3468 ± 0.2366a 33.70 0.9275 ± 0.4247ab 33.83 0.6227 ± 0.2648b 23.33 0.0581 ± 0.0246A 0.27 0.8522 ± 0.6017B 23.67 0.1065 ± 0.0668A 3.82
apigenin 0.0628 ± 0.0223a 1.57 0.0631 ± 0.0118a 2.30 0.0443 ± 0.0137a 1.66 0.0005 ± 0.000A 0.01 0.0153 ± 0.0131C 0.43 0.0008 ± 0.0001B 0.03
chrysin 0.0013 ± 0.0003a 0.03 0.0006 ± 0.0001b 0.02 0.0008 ± 0.0001b 0.03 Nd   0.0018 ± 0.0007 0.05 nd  
kaempferide 0.0015 ± 0.0007a 0.04 0.0009 ± 0.0001a 0.03 0.0007 ± 0.0002a 0.03 Nd   nd   nd  
sum 3.9956 ± 1.1751a 100 2.7421 ± 1.5258a 100 2.6691 ± 1.4033a 100 21.3797 ± 6.4628A 100 3.5973 ± 1.1740B 100 2.7894 ± 1.2502B 100
  1. nd Not detectable (i.e. below the limit of detection); the different lower case and upper case letters indicated significant differences for aboveground and belowground tissues among treatments, respectively