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Table 3 Constitutive and herbivore-induced VOCs released from entire experimental plant communities grown in pots in the greenhouse. 1 sp = Trifolium pratense monoculture, TG = two species mixture of T. pratense and Geranium pratense, TD = two species mixture of T. pratense and Dactylis glomerata (TD), 3 spp (TGD) = three species mixture with T. pratense, D. glomerata and G. pratense. In half of the experimental plant communities, one single T. pratense individual was infested with Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars (Herbviory). Values represent mean VOC emissions (ng g−1 h−1) ± SEM from the experimental plant communities

From: Plant volatile emission depends on the species composition of the neighboring plant community

Compounds Control Herbivory
1 sp. (T) 2 spp. 3 spp. (TDG) TG TD T (1 sp.) 2 spp. 3 spp. (TDG) TG TD
Monoterpenes
 (Z)-β-ocimene 1.5 ± 0.6 3.9 ± 1.3 4.4 ± 1.5 6.5 ± 2.2 1.3 ± 0.2 2.2 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 0.6 6.1 ± 1.4 3.9 ± 0.9 2.7 ± 0.8
 (E)-β-ocimene 6.8 ± 2.3 18.8 ± 4.8 23.6 ± 4.7 7.6 ± 2.2 30.1 ± 6.9 13.4 ± 6.0 17.3 ± 3.4 33.4 ± 8.2 11.0 ± 1.4 24.9 ± 5.9
 Tricyclene 2.2 ± 0.9 1.6 ± 0.7 4.4 ± 1.3 1.1 ± 0.5 2.3 ± 0.5 2 ± 0.7
 α-Pinene 0.2 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.3 2.0 ± 0.6 0.3 ± 0.2 0.1 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.2 0.1 ± 0.1
 Camphene 0.2 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.2 0.1 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1
 β-pinene 0.3 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.2 0.1 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.2 0.2 ± 0.1
 Myrcene 1.4 ± 0.5 3.5 ± 1.4 1.0 ± 0.3 1.9 ± 0.8 0.8 ± 0.4 1.9 ± 0.6 0.2 ± 0.2 1.6 ± 0.8
 Limonene 0.1 ± 0.1 2.0 ± 0.6 4.3 ± 1.4 0.4 ± 0.2 3.7 ± 0.8 0.3 ± 0.3 0.7 ± 0.3 2.2 ± 0.5 0.1 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.6
 Linalool 0.5 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.4 0.2 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.6 1.1 ± 1.0 0.6 ± 0.4 0.7 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.7
Sesquitepene
 (E)-β-Caryophyllene* 0.1 ± 0.1 3.5 ± 1.8 3.8 ± 1.0 5.9 ± 3.3 1.1 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 0.6 9.7 ± 2.1 3.5 ± 0.9 2.5 ± 0.9
 (E)-β-Farnesene 2.2 ± 1.4 1.8 ± 1.2 4.3 ± 2.6 0.4 ± 0.3 3.7 ± 2.0 0.8 ± 0.5
 cucurmene 1.7 ± 1.4 0.5 ± 0.2 3.4 ± 2.7 1.3 ± 1.0 1.1 ± 0.5 2.4 ± 1.7
 Germacrene D 2.8 ± 1.6 4.2 ± 2.9 5.7 ± 2.8 1.2 ± 0.4 5.9 ± 1.4 2.1 ± 0.4 0.1 ± 0.1
 (E,E)-α-Farnesene 0.7 ± 7 2.7 ± 1.2 6.1 ± 2.2 0.1 ± 0.1 5.2 ± 1.8 1.9 ± 1.1 6.1 ± 2.4 4.2 ± 1.9
Homoterpenes
 DMNT* 0.8 ± 0.3 0.4 ± 0.2 0.6 ± 0.2 0.3 ± 0.3 0.5 ± 0.2 2.1 ± 1.3 1.5 ± 0.3 2.2 ± 0.7 1.2 ± 0.3 1.7 ± 0.6
GLVs
 (Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate 17 ± 13 109 ± 50 153 ± 81 28 ± 21 190 ± 90 17 ± 15 34 ± 17 120 ± 43 4 ± 2 70 ± 31
Other volatiles
 1-Octen-3-ol 1 ± 0.3 2.6 ± 0.7 2.0 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.4 2.2 ± 0.6 1.9 ± 0.4
 Octly-acetate 0.2 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.2 0.4 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.4 0.7 ± 0.2 0.3 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.4 0.6 ± 0.2
 Nonanal 1.8 ± 0.7 1.4 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.7 0.9 ± 0.5 1.9 ± 0.6 1.9 ± 1.1 1.3 ± 0.3 1.6 ± 0.6 1.6 ± 0.5 1.0 ± 0.3
 Benzyl alcohol 1.9 ± 1.0 2.5 ± 1.1 8.1 ± 2.8 1.1 ± 0.7 4.0 ± 1.9 1.0 ± 0.7 1.8 ± 0.8 12.2 ± 7.7 0.4 ± 0.3 3.5 ± 1.5
 Unknown 0.5 ± 0.2 0.3 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.2 0.3 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.5 0.5 ± 0.2 0.6 ± 0.2 0.4 ± 0.2 0.6 ± 0.3
 MESA 0.4 ± 0.3 0.3 ± 0.3 0.8 ± 0.6 0.3 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.5 0.6 ± 0.3
Total 31 ± 14 159 ± 55 225 ± 90 73 ± 35 244 ± 96 42 ± 20 73 ± 22 215 ± 50 35 ± 6 118 ± 40
  1. All data was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) following transformation of data to meet assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variances. An asterisk (*) designates compounds which increased in their emission from the plant community when one individual of the focal plant T pratense within the community was infested with S littoralis caterpillars (p < 0.05), n = 5