Volume 5 Supplement 1

Cell Biology of Nitric Oxide and Cell Death in Plants

Open Access

Regulation of programmed cell death in plant embryogenesis

BMC Plant Biology20055(Suppl 1):S6

https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-5-S1-S6

Published: 31 May 2005

As plants grow they not only form new tissues and structures using highly coordinated cell-division and cell-differentiation programs but also continuously kill many of their own cells through activation of programmed cell death (PCD). The earliest functions of PCD in plant life are fulfilled during embryogenesis. Here PCD governs two major developmental processes. First is the elimination of a transient embryonic structure – suspensor, which functions at early stages of embryo development as a conduit of nutrients and growth factors, but is not required at later stages [1]. Another function of embryonic PCD applies to embryo abortion, which is not only a response to stress or mutagens, but also a normal feature of those plant species, which produce polyembryonic seeds. In the latter case competition among multiple embryos for survival often induces PCD resulting in the elimination of all but one embryo in a seed [2]. At the demise, both suspensor and entire embryos display a gradient of successive stages of PCD along apical-to-basal axis [2, 3]. This PCD implicates active role of autophagy in complete removal of cell protoplast. Autophagosomes are formed via Golgi and proplastids [1]. Autophagocytosis depends on the dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton. Microtubule network is disrupted early in PCD pathway. F-actin is gradually reorganised into thick longitudinal cables and is present till the vacuole collapse and fragmentation of nuclear DNA [1, 3]. Type II metacapase is critically involved in the regulation of the cell death pathway, which is essential for normal embryo development. Metacaspase gene silencing results in the suppression of cell death and failure of embryonic pattern formation [4].

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

References

  1. Filonova LH, Bozhkov PV, Brukhin VB, Daniel G, Zhivotovsky B, von Arnold S: Two waves of programmed cell death occur during formation and development of somatic embryos in the gymnosperm, Norway spruce. J Cell Sci. 2000, 113: 4399-4411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Filonova LH, von Arnold S, Daniel G, Bozhkov PV: Programmed cell death eliminates all but one embryo in a polyembryonic plant seed. Cell Death Differ. 2002, 9: 1057-1062. 10.1038/sj.cdd.4401068.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Smertenko AP, Bozhkov PV, Filonova LH, von Arnold S, Hussey PJ: Reorganisation of the cytoskeleton during developmental programmed cell death in Picea abies embryos. Plant J. 2003, 33: 813-824. 10.1046/j.1365-313X.2003.01670.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Suarez MF, Filonova LH, Smertenko A, Savenkov EI, Clapham DH, von Arnold S, Zhivotovsky B, Bozhkov PV: Metacaspase-dependent programmed cell death is essential for plant embryogenesis. Curr Biol. 2004, 14: R339-R340. 10.1016/j.cub.2004.04.019.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© The Author(s) 2005

Advertisement