- Research article
- Open Access
SMART – Sunflower Mutant population And Reverse genetic Tool for crop improvement
- Anish PK Kumar†1,
- Adnane Boualem†2, 3, 4,
- Anjanabha Bhattacharya1,
- Seema Parikh1,
- Nirali Desai1,
- Andres Zambelli5,
- Alberto Leon5,
- Manash Chatterjee1, 6Email author and
- Abdelhafid Bendahmane2, 3, 4
© Kumar et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
- Received: 30 May 2012
- Accepted: 13 February 2013
- Published: 5 March 2013
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is an important oilseed crop grown widely in various areas of the world. Classical genetic studies have been extensively undertaken for the improvement of this particular oilseed crop. Pertaining to this endeavor, we developed a “chemically induced mutated genetic resource for detecting SNP by TILLING” in sunflower to create new traits.
To optimize the EMS mutagenesis, we first conducted a “kill curve” analysis with a range of EMS dose from 0.5% to 3%. Based on the observed germination rate, a 50% survival rate i.e. LD50, treatment with 0.6% EMS for 8 hours was chosen to generate 5,000 M2 populations, out of which, 4,763 M3 plants with fertile seed set. Phenotypic characterization of the 5,000 M2 mutagenised lines were undertaken to assess the mutagenesis quality and to identify traits of interest. In the M2 population, about 1.1% of the plants showed phenotypic variations. The sunflower TILLING platform was setup using Endo-1-nuclease as mismatch detection system coupled with an eight fold DNA pooling strategy. As proof-of-concept, we screened the M2 population for induced mutations in two genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis, FatA an acyl-ACP thioesterase and SAD the stearoyl-ACP desaturase and identified a total of 26 mutations.
Based on the TILLING of FatA and SAD genes, we calculated the overall mutation rate to one mutation every 480 kb, similar to other report for this crop so far. As sunflower is a plant model for seed oil biosynthesis, we anticipate that the developed genetic resource will be a useful tool to identify novel traits for sunflower crop improvement.
- Functional genomics
- Oil quality
- Fatty acids
- Crop improvement
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), 2n =34, belongs to family Asteraceae, with an estimated genome size of 3000 Mbp, and is the fourth most important oilseed crop . It is a native of North America  and widely cultivated in the world with an annual production of about 24 million tonnes (http://www.fao.org). The genome size of this crop is large compared to model species like Arabidopsis (125 Mbp), Rice (430 Mbp), Sorghum (750 Mbp), Soybean (1100 Mbp) or Tomato (950 Mbp) (reviewed by ). The major drivers of this large genome size are mainly the recent polyploidization event and the important amplification of transposable elements [2, 4]. Many wild sunflower species are increasingly used for improvement of cultivated varieties by conventional breeding . With continued biased selection of the cultivated sunflower for traits such as yield, many alleles conferring useful traits got lost. Therefore a method to create variability for breeding this crop, in this era of increasing global food crisis and changing climatic regimes, is highly desirable. For many decades, plant breeders have concentrated their efforts on improvement of sunflower through traditional breeding and recently, molecular mapping has been successfully undertaken for marker assisted breeding (MAS) . Furthermore, chemical mutagenesis has been used by breeders to create variability in crops including sunflower but these have been mostly restricted to dominant traits. Therefore, many desirable mutations that are recessive have been missed during selection . Finally, traits such as oil quality cannot be selected by visual inspection of plants.
Sunflower is one of the major oil seed crops grown all over the world and considerable research efforts have been put to understand lipids biosynthesis and modification. This research mainly focused on (i) the production of more stable sunflower oils for biolubrication (high oleic acid content) and (ii) the increase of healthy substitutes for food industry . The de novo synthesis of fatty acids in plant storage tissues is an intraplastidial process in which the multienzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) complex catalyses a series of enzymatic reactions. In sunflower, the main products of intraplastidial fatty acid synthesis are, first, palmitoyl-ACP (16:0-ACP), which is further elongated by the FAS II complex to produce stearoyl-ACP (18:0-ACP). In turn, this molecule is the substrate for stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) that introduces a double bond in the carbon chain to produce oleoyl-ACP (18:1-ACP). All of these products can be exported from the plastid after the hydrolysis between the acyl molecule and ACP by the acyl-ACP thioesterase. Two types of acyl-ACPs thioesterases have been identified in higher plants such as sunflowers: FatA and FatB. FatA thioesterases preferentially act on long chain fatty acids, and have particularly high specificity for 18:1-ACP and a lower affinity for 16:0-ACP and 18:0-ACP . To address the needs of the confectionery industry for saturated fatty acids, high stearic acid content oils have been developed mainly by genetic modification of the FatA stearoyl-ACP thioesterase and the SAD stearoyl-ACP desaturase [10, 11]. Stearic fatty acid is considered cardiovascular neutral and do not modify the plasmatic cholesterol levels in humans .
TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genome) is a technology to detect induced and natural polymorphisms (SNP) in plants . The critical steps in TILLING procedure include the purity of seed material, the quality of the mutagenesis and the size of the mutant collection. TILLING relies on the ability of a group of enzymes, the endonucleases, to detect mismatches in a specific gene (). With the introduction of high throughput TILLING technology (), detection of even rare recessive mutation is possible [16, 17]. The significant advantages of TILLING method in creating and discovering new traits is that it significantly costs less for product development compared to transgenic crop plants. This makes it an attractive tool for crop improvement. As sequencing technology is getting advanced, deciphering small changes, like SNPs, which plays an important role in adaptive response and evolution of species is possible .
Sunflower, cultivated as a source of vegetable oil and protein is an attractive model for investigating seed oil quality. To investigate such trait, we have developed a reference EMS mutant population under controlled conditions and established a TILLING platform. As proof-of-concept, we screened for mutations in two genes, FatA and SAD, involved in accumulation of short to medium chain fatty acids and identified 26 induced mutations.
Impact of EMS concentration on seed germination
EMS dose (%)
Seed germination (%)
A total of 25,000 seeds were mutagenised and sown in pots to raise the nursery for creating the TILLING sunflower genetic resource. About 12,500 M1 plants were obtained, showing 50% lethality at seedling stage. After transplanting, further mortality occurred and a total of 6,500 M1 plants produced seeds, among which 5,000 M1 plants produced a good seed set. M2 seeds were harvested from the individual M1 plants. In total, 5,000 M2 seed stocks were harvested and corresponding M3 seeds were produced.
M2 plant phenotyping
List of mutant phenotype classes
Nb of plants
Large flower head
Mutation discovery by TILLING
Screening for mutations in the two genes, FatA and SAD, was used as proof-of-concept to determine the quality of the sunflower mutant collection and to estimate the mutation density. Both of these genes control production of short to medium chain fatty acids [18, 19]. SAD (Stearoyl-ACP desaturase) controls the production of stearic acid over oleic acid and inhibition of this enzyme leads to an increase stearic acid synthesis and a reduction of oleic acid production . There are two isoforms of acyl-ACP thioesterase, FatA and FatB which dictate the length of medium chain fatty acids production. FatA controlling essential role in chain termination of fatty acid synthesized  was used in the present study.
Types of induced mutation in FatA and SAD and mutation frequency
Fragment Size (bp)
Mutation frequency (1/kb)
Fatty acid biosynthesis
Fatty acid biosynthesis
We calculated the mutation frequency in the FatA and SAD genes (Table 3) according to Dalmais et al.. We estimated the SMART average mutation density to one mutation every 480 kb. This mutation rate is similar to those reported in the other diploid crops (reviewed by ).
The large number of mutations identified in the TILLING screens, i.e. 26 independent mutations, confirms that the genetic resource developed is of high quality. Background mutations in the interesting mutant line can be removed by backcrossing with the parental non-mutated line and cleaned lines can be released after trials as a variety. As the mutation is known, the released varieties can be followed in the field by Marker Assisted Selection (MAS). Mutations resulting in STOP codon and in splicing junction of exon-intron boundary are of great potential as found in the present study. Currently bioinformatic tools are available to predict the severity of the non-synomonous mutations . Synonymous substitutions have the potential to alter the production and function of a protein through folding changes, although the exact mechanism and frequency of such event is still a mystery .
As the world population continues to grow at a rapid pace, crop varieties with novel traits such as improved growth and yield potential are needed to feed in the future. Plant breeding is an old science which played a significant role during green revolution for its contribution in increasing crop yields. At present, there is skepticism against growing transgenic crops and transgenic technology, mainly because of the high cost incurred in creating a variety due to lengthy regulatory hurdles, which is almost absent with mutation breeding. TILLING provides a way to overcome problems associated with other techniques used in plant improvement like RNAi, over expression of genes, antisense technique, site directed mutagenesis by zinc fingers, T-DNA knockouts and transposon tagging [3, 24].
Many useful alleles involved in qualitative and quantitative parameters that exist in natural crop populations have been eliminated in the numerous rounds of selection for targeted traits. Therefore, creation of novel genetic resource by mutagenesis is a useful tool in crop improvement. In this study, we present a sunflower TILLING genetic resource produced by EMS chemical mutagenesis. To set up the sunflower TILLING platform, we developed an EMS mutant collection under controlled condition. The 5,000 M2 mutant collection was phenotyped and genomic DNA was prepared from the mutant plants and organized in pools for bulked screens. The mutant collection phenotyping showed that 1.1% of the mutant plant present at least on altered trait and confirm the quality of the mutagenesis. The sunflower mutant collection could be used for both forward and reverse genetics.
Sunflower has not been sequenced until now, owing to its large genome size (about 3,000Mbp). However, 443,858 ESTs are available at NCBI as of today. Studies by Chapman et al.  conducted genome scan in cultivated sunflower to predict genes involved in evolution of modern day cultivated variety. Lai et al.  published SNPs identified from submitted EST information in gene banks. Therefore, comparative genomic analysis can successfully be performed to pinpoint key gene information relating to various traits in this species by comparing known genetic information from other sequenced species.
To validate the quality of mutagenised population, we screened for mutants in FatA and SAD genes involved in oil biosynthesis. Many other published reports are available today pertaining to changes in seed oil composition in crop varieties. For example, mutations induced in the gene encoding Δ12 fatty acid desaturase (FAD2). Screening for FAD2 variants which increase oleic acid has been confirmed in soybean  and novel FAD2 alleles have been pursued in peanut  and sunflower . In the SMART mutant population, the mutation frequency was estimated to be 1/480 kb similar to the recently published reports in sunflower (1/475, ) and other crops (Arabidopsis 1/300 kb, Soybean 1/250 kb, Rice 1/265 kb, Tomato 1/322 kb; reviewed by ).
Chemical mutagenesis and TILLING approach together can be used to develop plants not only for the purpose of increasing productivity and quality parameters, but also in phytoremediation . TILLING has been successfully used in many crops to obtain useful alleles such as long shelf-life in melon and tomato [13, 30–33], improved starch quality in potato , virus resistance in tomato and pepper [35–37]. A number of crops are being sequenced at present, sequence information of more than 30 crops are available now and more than hundred crop plants are being sequenced (NCBI Genome Project database; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/leuks.cgi). Many key value-added traits can be obtained in sunflower with candidate gene polymorphism.
A TILLING genomic resource was developed for cultivated sunflower. Novel mutants having useful mutation in genes can be found by screening the population through high throughput ADP (Allele Discovery Platform) technique as mentioned in this article. Results obtained by screening two proof-of-concept genes are highly promising and confirms that the population is well mutagenized. Additional candidate genes can be screened from the resource developed. Such approach can also be used to develop markers for MAS (Marker assisted selection) strategy in sunflower breeding programs.
Standardization of EMS dose and determination of LD50value
Standardization of EMS (Ethyl Methane Sulfonate) mutagenesis treatment was done to determine LD50 value (lethal dose causing 50% reduction in seed germination) for the sunflower variety BBS-1 (BenchBio Sunflower-1). Kill curve analysis was done by treating 100 seeds with different EMS concentration (from 0 to 3% in deionized water) during 8 hours. Seeds were then thoroughly washed and transferred to wet tissue papers and kept in a growth chamber at 22°C with 12 hours photoperiod. This analysis was done in triplicate.
Finally, the optimal condition (0.6% EMS for 8 hours) was selected to mutagenise 25,000 M1 seeds with EMS. The seeds were sown in BenchBio Field 1–3, with a spacing of 60 cm × 45 cm. Standard cultivation practices were followed to grow the M1 plants. Self pollination was encouraged by covering inflorescence with a cloth bag before anthesis. Mature seed head were carefully tagged and collected from individual plants. The M2 seeds were harvested, packed and stored in cold room (8°C with 45-50% RH).
Genomic DNA extraction
Ten seeds per M2 families were sown in small pots inside the glasshouse and leaf material was collected from 3rd and 4th leaf of eight individual plants per M2 family, 3 weeks post germination, in 96-well plates containing 2 steel beads (4 mm) per well. Tissues were ground using a custom built bead mill . Approximately 100 mg was used for genomic DNA extraction using the Dneasy 96 Plant Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). The extracted genomic DNAs were run on a 1% agarose gel (HiMedia, India) to check quality. The quantity and purity of the genomic DNA samples were confirmed by UV spectrophotometer 1770 (Shimadzu Co., Japan). Individual DNA concentrations were normalized to 40 ng/ul and then used to prepare 8 fold pooling plates for TILLING screens.
PCR amplification and mutation detection
Forward Genetic Screen (FGS)
Five seeds per M2 family were grown to maturity and phenotyped, at 4 months post-germination, in the field for traits related to yield and plant architecture. From each M2 plant, M3 seeds were collected and packed. Number of fertile M2 plants was also evaluated.
We would like to thank the Shroff family, and Shroff family fund for financial support and encouragement. The authors wish to thank JRF Directors and Mr. Sudhansu Gupta and Mr. Bipin Parmar for administrative support. Mr. Lalman Paul and Mr. Sanjay Parmar for their support in growing mutant population and caring of plants.
- Kolkman JM, Berry ST, Leon AJ, Slabaugh MB, Tang S, Gao W, Shintani DK, Burke JM, Knapp SJ: Single nucleotide polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium in sunflower. Genetics. 2007, 177 (1): 457-468. 10.1534/genetics.107.074054.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Harter AV, Gardner KA, Falush D, Lentz DL, Bye RA, Rieseberg LH: Origin of extant domesticated sunflowers in eastern North America. Nature. 2004, 430: 201-205. 10.1038/nature02710.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rashid M, He G, Guanxiao Y, Khurram Z: Relevance of tilling in plant genomics. AJCS. 2011, 5 (4): 411-420.Google Scholar
- Staton SE, Bakken BH, Blackman BK, Chapman MA, Kane NC, Tang S, Ungerer MC, Knapp SJ, Rieseberg LH, Burke JM: The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genome reflects a recent history of biased accumulation of transposable elements. Plant J. 2012, 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2012.05072.Google Scholar
- Seiler GJ: Utilization of wild sunflower species for the improvement of cultivated sunflower. Field Crop Res. 1992, 30 (Suppl 3–4): 195-230.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Micic Z, Hahn V, Bauer E, Schon C, Melchinger A: QTL mapping of resistance to Sclerotinia midstalk rot in RIL of sunflower population NDBLOSsel × CM625. Theor Appl Genet. 2005, 110 (Suppl 8): 1490-1498.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Barkley NA, Wang ML: Application of TILLING and EcoTILLING as reverse genetic approaches to elucidate the function of genes in plants and animals. Curr Gen. 2008, 9: 212-226. 10.2174/138920208784533656.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Garcés R, Martínez-Force E, Salas JJ, Venegas-Calerón M: Current advances in sunflower oil and its applications. Lipid Technology. 2009, 21: 79-82. 10.1002/lite.200900016.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pleite R, Martínez-Force E, Garcés R: Inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis in sunflower seeds. J Plant Physiol. 2006, 163 (9): 885-b94. 10.1016/j.jplph.2005.11.017.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Facciotti MT, Bertain PB, Yuan L: Improved stearate phenotype in transgenic canola expressing a modified acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase. Nat Biotechnol. 1999, 17: 593-597. 10.1038/9909.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang P, Burton JW, Upchurch RG, Whittle E, Shanklin J, Dewey RE: Mutations in a Δ9-stearoyl-ACP-desaturase gene are associated with enhanced stearic acid levels in soybean seeds. Crop Sci. 2008, 48: 2305-2313. 10.2135/cropsci2008.02.0084.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kris-Etherton PM, Griel AE, Psota TL, Gebauer SK, Zhang J, Etherton TD: Dietary stearic acid and risk of cardiovascular disease: intake, sources, digestion, and adsorption. Lipids. 2005, 40: 1193-1200. 10.1007/s11745-005-1485-y.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Colbert T, Till BJ, Tompa R, Reynolds S, Steine MN, Yeung AT, McCallum CM, Comai L, Henikoff S: High-throughput screening for induced point mutations. Plant Physiol. 2001, 126: 480-484. 10.1104/pp.126.2.480.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Triques K, Sturbois B, Gallais S, Dalmais M, Chauvin S, Clepet C, Aubourg S, Rameau C, Caboche M, Bendahmane A: Characterization ofArabidopsis thalianamismatch specific endonucleases: application to mutation discovery by TILLING in pea. Plant J. 2007, 51: 1116-1125. 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2007.03201.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Till BJ, Reynolds SH, Greene EA, Codomo CA, Enns LC, Johnson JE, Burter C, Odden AR, Young K, Taylor NE, Henikoff JG, Comai L, Henikoff S: Largescale discovery of induced point mutations with high-throughput TILLING. Genome Res. 2003, 13: 524-530. 10.1101/gr.977903.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- McCallum CM, Comai L, Greene EA, Henikoff S: Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) for plant functional genomics. Plant Physiol. 2000, 123: 439-442. 10.1104/pp.123.2.439.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Colbert TG, Hurst SR, Slade AJ: Tomatoes that soften more slowly post-harvest due to non-transgenic alterations in an expansin gene. US: US Patent Application; 2001. 20110113507Google Scholar
- Zarhloul KM, Stoll C, Luhs W, Syring-Ehemann A, Hausmann L, Toper R, Friedt W: Breeding high-stearic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) with high and low-erucic background using optimised promoter-gene constructs. Mol Breed. 2007, 18: 241-251.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jones A, Davles HM, Voelker TA: Palmitoyl-Acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase and the evolutionary origin of plant Acyl-ACP Thioesterases. Plant Cell. 1995, 7: 359-371.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dalmais M, Schmidt J, Signor CL, Moussy F, Burstin J, Savois V, Aubert G, Brunaud V, Oliveira Y, Guichard C, Thompson R, Bendahmane A: UTILLdb, a pisum sativum in silico forward and reverse genetics tool. Genome Biol. 2008, 9: 43R. 10.1186/gb-2008-9-2-r43.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Triques K, Piednoir E, Dalmais M, Schmidt J, Le Signor C, Sharkey M, Caboche M, Sturbois B, Bendahmane A: Mutation detection using ENDO 1: application to disease diagnostics in humans and TILLING and Eco-TILLING in plants. BMC Mol Biol. 2008, 9: 42. 10.1186/1471-2199-9-42.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Taylor NE, Greene EA: PARSESNP: a tool for the analysis of nucleotide polymorphisms. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003, 31: 3808-3811. 10.1093/nar/gkg574.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tsai CJ, Sauna ZE, Kimchi-Sarfaty C, Ambudkar SV, Gottesman MM, Nussinov R: Synonymous mutations and ribosome stalling can lead to altered folding pathways and distinct minima. J Mol Biol. 2008, 383: 281-291. 10.1016/j.jmb.2008.08.012.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sabetta W, Alba V, Blanco A, Montemurro C: sunTILL: a TILLING resource for gene function analysis in sunflower. Plant Methods. 2011, 7: 20. 10.1186/1746-4811-7-20.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chapman MA, Pashley CH, Wenzler J, Hvala J, Tang S, Knapp SJ, Burke JM: A genomic scan for selection reveals candidates for genes involved in the evolution of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Plant Cell. 2008, 20 (Suppl 11): 2931-45.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lai Z, Livingstone K, Zou Y, Church SA, Knapp SJ, Andrews J, Rieseberg LH: Identification and mapping of SNPs from ESTs in sunflower. Theor Appl Genet. 2005, 111: 1532-44. 10.1007/s00122-005-0082-4.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dierking EC, Bilyeu KD: New sources of soybean seed meal and oil composition traits identified through TILLING. BMC Plant Biol. 2009, 9: 89. 10.1186/1471-2229-9-89.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Knoll J, Ramos ML, Zeng Y, Holbrook CC, Chow M, Chen S, Maleki S, Bhattacharya A, Ozias-Akins P: TILLING for allergen reduction and improvement of quality traits in Peanut. BMC Plant Biol. 2011, 11: 81. 10.1186/1471-2229-11-81.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nehnevajova E, Herzig R, Federer G, Erismann KH, Schwitzguébel JP: Chemical mutagenesis - a promising technique to increase metal concentration and extraction in sunflowers. Int J Phytoremediation. 2007, 9 (Suppl 2): 149-65.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- McCallum CM, Slade AJ, Colbert TG, Knauf VC, Hurst S: Tomatoes having reduced polygalacturonase activity caused by non-transgenic mutations in the polygalacturonase gene. US: US Patent; 2008. 7393996Google Scholar
- Dahmani-Mardas F, Troadec C, Boualem A, Leveque S, Alsadon AA, Aldoss AA, Dogimont C, Bendahmane A: Engineering melon plants with improved fruit shelf life using the TILLING approach. PLoS One. 2010, 5: e15776. 10.1371/journal.pone.0015776.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hurst SR, Loeffler DL, Steine MN, Amen A, Vafeados A: Non-transgenic tomato varieties having increased shelf life post-harvest due to alterations in beta-galactosidase 4. 2011, US: US Patent Application, 20110159168Google Scholar
- Gonzalez M, Xu M, Esteras C, Roig C, Monforte AJ, Troadec C, Pujol M, Nuez F, Bendahmane A, Garcia-Mas J, Pico B: Towards a TILLING platform for functional genomics in Piel de sapo melons. BMC Research Notes. 2011, 4: 289. 10.1186/1756-0500-4-289.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Muth J, Hartje S, Twyman RM, Hofferbert HR, Tacke E, Prüfer D: Precision breeding for novel starch variants in potato. Plant Biotech. Journal. 2011, 6: 576-584.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Piron F, Nicolai M, Minoia S, Piednoir E, Moretti A, Salgues A, Zamir D, Caranta C, Bendahmane A: An induced mutation in tomato eIF4E leads to immunity to two potyviruses. PLoS One. 2010, 5: e11313. 10.1371/journal.pone.0011313.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ibiza VP, Cañizares J, Nuez F: EcoTILLING in Capsicum species: searching for new virus resistances. BMC Genomics. 2010, 11: 631. 10.1186/1471-2164-11-631.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jeong HJ, Kwon JK, Pandeya D, Hwang J, Hoang NH, Bae JH, Kang BC: A survey of natural and ethyl methane sulfonate-induced variations of eIF4E using high-resolution melting analysis in Capsicum. Mol Breeding. 2011. 10.1007/s11032-011-9550-5.Google Scholar
- Abraham T, Kumar PK, Chatterjee M, Shroff J, Shroff V: Method and apparatus for gravity assisted high throughput disruption of cellular material. India Patent Application; 2009: 2308/MUM/09.http://ipindiaservices.gov.in/patentsearch/search/index.aspx.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.