Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) from poplar. (A), Neighbour-joining tree of Populus trichocarpa TLPs. Branch lengths are proportional to phylogenetic distances. (B), Protein characteristics and natural selection of poplar TLPs. MW: mass weight in kDa; Ip: predicted iso-electric point; ns: neutral selection . (C), Regulation of poplar TLPs during stress. Transcriptome analyses of 3 different studies on poplar leaves infected by Melampsora spp. are summarized [27, 30, 31]. Changes considered to be significant by the respective authors are in bold. I48: incompatible interaction at 48 hour post-inoculation (hpi); C48: compatible interaction at 48 hpi; Mmd: compatible interaction at 6 dpi; Mlp: compatible interaction at 6 dpi; Mxt: Mmd+Mlp; 1d, 3d, 7d, 9d: compatible interaction respectively at 1, 3, 7 and 9 dpi. Summarized data for expression during stress conditions were mined from the PopGenIE database  (non-underlined letters) or from the literature (underlined letters). 'up': up-regulated gene or increased protein accumulation; 'down': down-regulated gene; ns: no significant regulation; a letter alone indicates that the corresponding protein has been reported but no regulation information is available; a to d: ozone, UV, drought and cold stress respectively; e: wind exposed leaves; f: wounding; g: Populus/Melampsora compatible interaction; h: sap extract; i: sap extract after wounding; j: wood regeneration; k: copper stress. Corresponding references: [60, 65–71] (D), Protein domain organisation and CDS structure. Light grey box: thaumatin domain; dark grey box: protein kinase domain; black box: exon. '-' in (A), (B) and (C) indicates missing information. aAccession number of the best Arabidopsis thaliana homolog.