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Table 1 Effects of N supply on mean (±SE, n = 3) concentrations (μg g− 1 FW) of FAADs as well as their summation in Citrus sinensis leaves

From: Adaptive responses of carbon and nitrogen metabolisms to nitrogen-deficiency in Citrus sinensis seedlings

FAADs Molecular formula N treatments (mM)
0 5 10 15 20
N-Acetyl-L-tyrosine (NAT) C11H13NO4 0.143 ± 0.007b 0.167 ± 0.014ab 0.172 ± 0.001ab 0.177 ± 0.008a 0.175 ± 0.015ab
L-tyrosine methyl ester (H-Tyr-OMe) C10H14NO3 0.068 ± 0.007c 0.104 ± 0.008b 0.128 ± 0.009a 0.140 ± 0.006a 0.141 ± 0.002a
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) C10H7NO3 0.527 ± 0.038a 0.224 ± 0.018c 0.283 ± 0.005bc 0.288 ± 0.004b 0.290 ± 0.017b
L-Phenylalanine (Phe) C9H11NO2 1.351 ± 0.089a 0.701 ± 0.048c 0.782 ± 0.014c 0.912 ± 0.054bc 1.128 ± 0.138ab
L-Tyrosine (Tyr) C9H11NO3 10.171 ± 0.342d 15.483 ± 0.393c 16.624 ± 0.637c 18.773 ± 0.101b 20.906 ± 0.809a
L-α-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine (α-AP) C13H16N2O5 1.429 ± 0.027d 2.383 ± 0.029c 2.719 ± 0.149b 2.789 ± 0.029b 3.073 ± 0.109a
L-Leucine (Leu) C6H13NO2 0.825 ± 0.111c 0.905 ± 0.042bc 1.055 ± 0.041b 1.418 ± 0.048a 1.585 ± 0.085a
L-Isoleucine (Ile) C6H13NO2 4.994 ± 0.140a 2.567 ± 0.140d 2.830 ± 0.076d 3.741 ± 0.051c 4.087 ± 0.042b
L-Pipecolic acid C6H11NO2 10.000 ± 0.424c 10.020 ± 0.066c 34.541 ± 6.155b 28.793 ± 3.203b 48.705 ± 3.427a
N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) C6H9NO5 2.355 ± 0.141a 2.854 ± 0.662a 2.361 ± 0.619a 3.286 ± 0.263a 2.740 ± 0.081a
α-Aminoadipic acid C6H11NO4 2.700 ± 0.513a 1.804 ± 0.101b 2.061 ± 0.154ab 2.725 ± 0.117a 2.476 ± 0.204ab
4-Acetamidobutyric acid C6H11NO3 0.515 ± 0.010b 0.644 ± 0.028a 0.647 ± 0.013a 0.650 ± 0.003a 0.621 ± 0.002a
6-Aminocaproic acid (ACA) C6H13NO2 ND 1.142 ± 0.015a 1.169 ± 0.018a 1.186 ± 0.021a 1.186 ± 0.018a
L-Tryptophan (Trp) C11H12N2O2 80.878 ± 6.563a 7.412 ± 0.182b 8.142 ± 0.167b 9.741 ± 0.512b 11.346 ± 2.123b
Glycylphenylalanine C11H14N2O3 ND ND ND ND ND
N′-Formylkynurenine C11H12N2O4 15.418 ± 1.215d 24.929 ± 1.011c 26.456 ± 0.825bc 28.228 ± 0.787b 33.954 ± 0.631a
L-Valine (Val) C5H11NO2 12.968 ± 0.884a 10.232 ± 0.526b 9.962 ± 0.350b 11.927 ± 0.231a 12.776 ± 0.183a
L-Methionine (Met) C5H11NO2S 2.542 ± 0.102c 7.612 ± 0.635b 8.192 ± 0.358b 9.776 ± 0.452a 9.888 ± 0.206a
L-Proline (Pro) C5H9NO2 645.889 ± 44.914c 2151.429 ± 78.846b 2267.012 ± 83.253ab 2425.094 ± 25.926a 2420.926 ± 50.214a
L-Glutamic acid (Glu) C5H9NO4 2700.119 ± 91.072b 6639.120 ± 317.405a 6478.371 ± 174.902a 6279.665 ± 161.942a 6820.514 ± 96.150a
5-Hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HTP) C10H12N2O 11.198 ± 0.910a 8.362 ± 0.462bc 10.089 ± 1.628ab 5.906 ± 0.266c 6.528 ± 0.381c
Trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline C5H9NO3 2.865 ± 0.039d 8.615 ± 0.421c 14.151 ± 1.189b 12.566 ± 0.507b 17.954 ± 0.745a
Methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) C5H11NO3S 1.079 ± 0.020d 1.953 ± 0.125c 2.477 ± 0.087b 2.416 ± 0.014b 2.927 ± 0.088a
5-Aminovaleric acid NH2(CH2)4CO2H 0.529 ± 0.529b 1.799 ± 0.015a 1.865 ± 0.012a 1.810 ± 0.034a 1.825 ± 0.002a
L-Aspartate (Asp) C4H7NO4 56.124 ± 1.650c 713.182 ± 56.401b 1043.476 ± 37.160a 1041.208 ± 55.672a 1161.492 ± 8.634a
L-Threonine (Thr) C4H9NO3 66.646 ± 2.734d 111.219 ± 4.981c 112.264 ± 7.045c 156.143 ± 3.358b 189.988 ± 5.612a
Homoserine C4H9NO3 2.073 ± 0.202b 4.841 ± 0.705a 5.168 ± 1.067a 5.788 ± 0.381a 4.102 ± 0.352a
N6-Acetyl-L-lysine C8H16N2O3 0.522 ± 0.025c 0.653 ± 0.018b 0.831 ± 0.042a 0.879 ± 0.008a 0.869 ± 0.032a
(5-L-Glutamyl)-L-amino acid C8H14N2O5S ND 16.118 ± 0.631b 18.517 ± 0.816ab 20.437 ± 0.767a 19.994 ± 1.624a
N-Glycyl-L-leucine C8H16N2O3 0.388 ± 0.052a 0.370 ± 0.006a 0.372 ± 0.009a 0.432 ± 0.012a 0.392 ± 0.024a
γ-Glutamate-cysteine C8H14N2O5S 51.107 ± 1.171b 74.516 ± 2.935a 69.447 ± 7.705a 66.172 ± 4.770a 67.760 ± 1.597a
2-Aminobutyric acid C4H9NO 0.418 ± 0.036c 0.657 ± 0.030b 0.740 ± 0.029ab 0.813 ± 0.042ab 0.918 ± 0.137a
(S)-β-Aminoisobutyric acid C4H9NO ND ND ND ND ND
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) C4H9NO 2695.942 ± 88.538b 4725.078 ± 206.671a 4886.078 ± 250.541a 5135.903 ± 64.712a 5100.838 ± 244.809a
N,N-Dimethylglycine (DMG) C4H9NO2 ND ND ND ND ND
L-Cystathionine (LCYH) C7H14N2O4S 0.608 ± 0.080c 1.235 ± 0.127b 1.637 ± 0.162a 1.662 ± 0.028a 1.684 ± 0.040a
Glycyl-L-proline (GLY-PRO) C7H12N2O3 0.756 ± 0.014d 1.099 ± 0.030c 1.011 ± 0.027b 1.069 ± 0.025ab 0.980 ± 0.0170a
Nα-Acetyl-L-glutamine (NAG) C7H12N2O4 0.132 ± 0.007e 0.997 ± 0.100d 1.963 ± 0.311c 2.966 ± 0.192b 4.193 ± 0.153a
Glutathione oxidized (GSSG) C20H32N6O12S2 1854.060 ± 53.315d 7915.502 ± 682.289c 14,138.470 ± 703.316b 15,289.299 ± 1396.802b 18,558.053 ± 1028.213a
L-Alanine (Ala) C3H7NO2 111.211 ± 4.295c 308.191 ± 13.137b 339.559 ± 8.060ab 366.460 ± 9.366a 368.487 ± 15.608a
L-Serine (Ser) C3H7NO3 272.336 ± 20.443d 975.161 ± 39.892c 1159.738 ± 30.190b 1163.465 ± 10.628b 1339.013 ± 22.170a
L-Lysine (Lys) C6H14N2O2 24.672 ± 1.606e 53.614 ± 1.669d 74.418 ± 6.176c 93.404 ± 1.124b 136.712 ± 7.862a
Beta-Alanine (β-Ala) C3H7NO2 ND 12.461 ± 1.018b 17.243 ± 1.392a 16.776 ± 0.469a 18.423 ± 0.481a
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) C3H13NO3 0.00612 ± 0.0006a 0.00348 ± 0.0003b 0.00265 ± 0.0001bc 0.00235 ± 0.0001c 0.00213 ± 0.00006c
N8-Acetylspermidine (N8AS) C9H21N3O 2.476 ± 0.057a 2.340 ± 0.087ab 2.292 ± 0.017ab 2.216 ± 0.092bc 2.072 ± 0.066c
D-Alanyl-D-alanine (D-Ala-D-Ala) C6H12N2O3 1.678 ± 0.076d 10.542 ± 0.310a 9.204 ± 0.099b 9.441 ± 0.157b 8.308 ± 0.110c
L-Cysteine (Cys) C3H7NO2S 5.224 ± 0.854a ND ND ND ND
5-Hydroxylysine (Hyl) C6H14N2O3 ND ND ND ND ND
L-Glutamine (Gln) C5H10N2O3 353.734 ± 22.747e 1815.399 ± 89.840d 3624.851 ± 266.384c 4727.936 ± 162.809b 6030.362 ± 238.848a
L-Ornithine (Orn) C5H12N2O2 8.172 ± 0.341d 14.600 ± 1.112d 36.474 ± 3.917c 59.289 ± 3.386b 100.013 ± 6.793a
Argininosuccinic acid (ASA) C10H20N4O6 ND ND 5.642 ± 2.824b 8.339 ± 0.421ab 9.846 ± 0.330a
L-Homocitrulline (HC) C7H15N3O3 ND ND 0.759 ± 0.003b 0.767 ± 0.007b 0.782 ± 0.007a
3-N-Methyl-L-histidine (3-N-Methyl-L-His) C7H11N3O2 2.473 ± 0.039b 2.542 ± 0.089b 2.629 ± 0.107b 2.678 ± 0.038ab 2.853 ± 0.026a
S-(5-Adenosy)-L-homocysteine C14H20N6O5S 1.717 ± 0.052b 4.225 ± 0.297a 4.153 ± 0.051a 4.498 ± 0.146a 4.459 ± 0.089a
L-Carnosine C9H14N4O3 1.894 ± 0.025ab 1.882 ± 0.022ab 1.841 ± 0.051ab 1.926 ± 0.031a 1.789 ± 0.034b
L-Asparagine anhydrous (Asn) C4H8N2O3 13.734 ± 0.973d 1003.304 ± 128.749c 3083.540 ± 397.933b 3376.453 ± 160.504b 4580.323 ± 136.984a
L-Citrulline (Cit) C6H13N3O3 3.149 ± 0.163e 43.396 ± 3.843d 163.437 ± 20.155c 216.965 ± 14.841b 319.212 ± 13.408a
Glycine (Gly) C2H5NO2 6.946 ± 1.082d 44.294 ± 3.368c 123.118 ± 5.959b 125.389 ± 5.278b 168.703 ± 3.520a
Nα-Acetyl-L-arginine C8H16N4O3 10.478 ± 0.18b 19.97 ± 1.10a 22.48 ± 0.98a 21.84 ± 0.68a 23.36 ± 2.90a
2-Aminoethanesulfonic acid C2H7NO3S 1.673 ± 0.007 cd 1.654 ± 0.011d 1.709 ± 0.008ab 1.685 ± 0.002bc 1.735 ± 0.011a
Ethanolamine (EtA) C2H7NO 20.179 ± 3.581c 71.230 ± 0.489a 60.926 ± 1.657b 65.651 ± 2.804ab 61.441 ± 2.380b
Homo-L-arginine (homo-Arg) C7H16N4O2 0.993 ± 0.126d 2.530 ± 0.170c 3.010 ± 0.176bc 3.415 ± 0.325b 4.152 ± 0.031a
3,7-Dimethyluric acid C7H8N4O3 0.187 ± 0.001c 0.197 ± 0.002c 0.225 ± 0.021bc 0.303 ± 0.014a 0.262 ± 0.034ab
L-Arginine (Arg) C6H14N4O2 8.876 ± 0.888e 231.915 ± 16.001d 500.928 ± 55.152c 773.747 ± 19.609b 912.786 ± 37.763a
Creatine-phosphate (CP) C4H8N3Na2O5P 380.690 ± 12.393a 188.519 ± 17.603bc 247.029 ± 26.919b 218.475 ± 13.702bc 156.963 ± 42.067c
Creatine C4H9N3O2 0.329 ± 0.006a 0.136 ± 0.136ab ND ND 0.122 ± 0.122ab
Succinic acid C4H6O4 715.448 ± 23.935a 706.139 ± 78.683a 574.498 ± 24.891b 532.770 ± 14.402b 454.466 ± 7.096b
Summation of FAADs (TFAADs)   10,185.614 ± 352.688d 27,980.176 ± 1172.927c 39,231.767 ± 1400.485b 42,368.673 ± 1244.381b 49,243.660 ± 1676.003a
  1. ND Not detected. Different letters within a row indicate a significant difference at P < 0.05. FAADs in the table were arranged from high to low according to their C/N ratio. The same notation will be used in Table 2