Skip to main content

Table 2 Repeatability () whole plant, biomass composition, and actual and potential ethanol yield traits among the populations tested

From: Genomic prediction accuracy for switchgrass traits related to bioenergy within differentiated populations

Variable Abbreviation Units \( {\widehat{H}}^2 \) Population
     K KxS N1 N1EM S
Whole plant
 Dry matter Yield YLD kg 0.61 1.45 ± 0.43aa,b 1.03 ± 0.31c 1.23 ± 0.32b 1.37 ± 0.36a 0.6 ± 0.22d
 Anthesis Date ANT DOY 0.94 246.0 ± 4.0a 227.4 ± 10.4d 240.8 ± 8.6b 235.2 ± 7.5c 202.0 ± 10.5e
 Spring Emergence Date GRN DOY 0.78 137.6 ± 8.7a 133.1 ± 1.5c 138.3 ± 1.5a 137.7 ± 1.2b 130.7 ± 1.9d
Composition
 Dry Matter DM mg g− 1 0.47 911.4 ± 1.9a 911.2 ± 2.1a 910.4 ± 1.6bc 911.0 ± 1.9ab 910.2 ± 2.5c
 Carbon C mg g− 1 0.71 448.9 ± 3.1a 445.6 ± 3.2c 447.53 ± 2.9b 450.0 ± 3.2a 444.0 ± 3.9d
 Nitrogen N mg g− 1 0.6 5.76 ± 1.03ab 5.27 ± 0.94c 5.92 ± 0.87a 5.47 ± 0.97bc 5.57 ± 1.16abc
 Extracted fat FAT mg g− 1 0.71 9.23 ± 1.22b 7.12 ± 1.28c 9.59 ± 1.23ab 9.7 ± 1.1a 7.32 ± 1.23c
 Minerals (total ash) ASH mg g− 1 0.72 63.12 ± 5.6b 71.31 ± 7.38a 62.47 ± 5b 61.1 ± 5.1b 70.11 ± 8.64a
 Klason Lignin KL mg g− 1 0.46 286.4 ± 16.0c 298.5 ± 15.0a 287.1 ± 12.6c 293.3 ± 12.7b 296.6 ± 15.1ab
 Uronic Acids UA mg g− 1 0.67 17.04 ± 0.36b 16.74 ± 0.39c 17.2 ± 0.35a 17.25 ± 0.4a 16.39 ± 0.48d
 Rhamnose RHA mg g− 1 0.49 1.70 ± 0.14d 1.75 ± 0.16bc 1.77 ± 0.13b 1.7 ± 0.12 cd 1.85 ± 0.21a
 Fucose FUC mg g− 1 0.54 0.23 ± 0.04b 0.26 ± 0.03a 0.22 ± 0.03c 0.23 ± 0.03b 0.23 ± 0.04b
 Arabinose ARA mg g− 1 0.49 32.93 ± 1.48b 33.35 ± 1.44ab 33.76 ± 1.41a 32.94 ± 1.31b 33.79 ± 1.65a
 Xylose XYL mg g− 1 0.66 212.4 ± 5.7c 214.8 ± 6.4b 212.3 ± 6.3c 212.9 ± 6.1bc 218.3 ± 7.1a
 Mannose MAN mg g− 1 0.59 8.95 ± 0.83ab 7.82 ± 0.85c 8.79 ± 0.74a 9.10 ± 0.87b 8.71 ± 1.41d
 Galactose GAL mg g− 1 0.41 9.61 ± 0.67b 9.63 ± 0.74b 9.96 ± 0.62a 9.53 ± 0.53b 9.7 ± 0.88ab
 Glucose GLC mg g− 1 0.47 298.1 ± 7.2b 296.6 ± 7.2b 295.4 ± 6.9b 301.0 ± 6.1a 296.0 ± 8.0b
 p-Coumarate esters PCA mg g− 1 0.83 8.32 ± 0.55a 7.53 ± 0.69c 8.06 ± 0.57b 8.01 ± 0.59b 6.46 ± 0.75d
 Esterified ferulates FEST mg g− 1 0.9 1.91 ± 0.15a 1.53 ± 0.23c 1.86 ± 0.18ab 1.81 ± 0.18b 1.2 ± 0.2d
 Etherified ferulates FETH mg g−1 0.34 1.05 ± 0.2a 0.82 ± 0.26bc 0.92 ± 0.19b 1.05 ± 0.19a 0.82 ± 0.26c
 Cell wall concentration CWC mg g− 1 0.62 825.0 ± 20.0d 850.2 ± 19.6b 828.8 ± 19.4d 840.7 ± 17.0c 860.1 ± 21.3a
 ARA + XYL + Man+GAL AXMG mg g− 1 0.7 259.8 ± 5.9b 261.2 ± 6.5b 260.4 ± 6.8b 261.0 ± 6.1b 266.5 ± 6.4a
 ARA + XYL AX mg g− 1 0.73 240.1 ± 5.3c 245.5 ± 5.8b 241.3 ± 6.4c 241.5 ± 5.6c 252.1 ± 6.5a
 Sucrose SUC mg g−1 0.81 14.77 ± 4.72a 8.94 ± 4.37c 16.30 ± 4.79a 12.83 ± 3.50b 5.65 ± 3.95d
 Soluble glucose GLCS mg g− 1 0.81 10.50 ± 1.92ab 8.30 ± 1.93c 11.10 ± 1.88a 10.21 ± 1.67b 6.85 ± 2.01d
 Fructose FRU mg g− 1 0.75 8.83 ± 2.25b 6.57 ± 2.05c 9.75 ± 2.46a 8.20 ± 1.96b 5.21 ± 2.10d
 Total soluble carbohydrates SC mg g− 1 0.85 34.65 ± 8.60a 22.75 ± 7.85c 36.32 ± 8.61a 29.4 ± 6.76b 17.66 ± 7.39d
 Starch STA mg g−1 0.55 8.11 ± 1.80ab 7.73 ± 2.60b 7.71 ± 2.06b 7.95 ± 1.73b 8.88 ± 2.20a
 Non-structural carbohydrates (starch + SC) NSC mg g− 1 0.82 33.63 ± 10.14a 21.28 ± 9.75c 35.12 ± 10.35a 29.13 ± 7.59b 16.95 ± 9.04d
 Total hexoses HEX mg g− 1 0.82 373.6 ± 9.7a 359.8 ± 10.2b 372.7 ± 7.7a 375.1 ± 7.2a 348.4 ± 10.8c
 Total sugars SUG mg g− 1 0.62 664.8 ± 10.1b 658.2 ± 10.9c 666.7 ± 10.0ab 668.8 ± 10.0a 658.7 ± 11.6c
Ethanol and potential ethanol
 Ethanol/g dry forage ETOH mg g− 1 0.81 79.79 ± 5.24ab 73.41 ± 5.83c 81.65 ± 6.06a 79.22 ± 4.98b 70.07 ± 6.02d
 Pentose sugars relased/g dry forage PENT mg g−1 0.68 213.0 ± 5.2a 217.3 ± 6.8b 213.9 ± 5.9a 214.3 ± 6.0a 223.8 ± 7.4c
 Proportion of hexoses that are non-structural or soluble PSOL % 0.8 0.09 ± 0.03a 0.06 ± 0.02c 0.09 ± 0.03a 0.07 ± 0.02b 0.05 ± 0.02d
 Pentose proportion of total carbohydrates PPEN % 0.84 0.43 ± 0.01d 0.44 ± 0.01b 0.43 ± 0.01c 0.43 ± 0.01 cd 0.45 ± 0.01a
 Theoretical ethanol from hexoses (excluding starch) HEXE mg g− 1 0.71 202.7 ± 4.5b 198.4 ± 5.2c 203.6 ± 3.9ab 204.3 ± 3.9a 194.9 ± 6.4d
 Estimated ethanol from non-structural carbohydrates NSCE mg g− 1 0.79 17.10 ± 4.64a 11.78 ± 4.74c 17.98 ± 4.76a 14.83 ± 3.64b 9.74 ± 4.36d
 Cell wall ethanol CWE mg g− 1 0.68 63.06 ± 4.14b 59.61 ± 3.62c 64.64 ± 3.74a 63.76 ± 4.26ab 59.03 ± 3.84c
 Theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency from cell wall hexosans CWEP % 0.48 35.28 ± 3.19b 34.42 ± 2.88b 36.23 ± 2.64a 35.10 ± 2.87b 34.35 ± 3.36b
 Pentoses extraction efficiency PENTP % 0.6 78.28 ± 1.10b 78.53 ± 1.28b 78.93 ± 1.11a 78.40 ± 0.88b 79.41 ± 1.23a
 Hexose ethanol extraction efficiency HEXEP % 0.68 42.02 ± 2.78b 39.54 ± 2.83c 43.38 ± 3.06a 41.56 ± 2.83b 37.30 ± 3.30d
Forage quality composition
 In vitro dry matter digestibility IVDMD mg g− 1 0.71 360.3 ± 21.9a 321.3 ± 22.1c 363.4 ± 22.3a 346.7 ± 19.7b 308.6 ± 27.5d
 Neutral detergent fiber NDF mg g−1 0.44 778.5 ± 15.9c 790.2 ± 14.7ab 773.0 ± 15.9c 787.3 ± 14.4b 793.7 ± 18.9a
 Acid detergent fiber ADF mg g− 1 0.49 418.3 ± 17.9c 431.8 ± 15.8a 409.6 ± 17.5d 421.6 ± 15.3bc 425.6 ± 21.3ab
 Acid detergent lignin ADL mg g− 1 0.47 66.1 ± 4.2b 69.9 ± 4.0a 64.6 ± 3.9c 66.9 ± 4.0b 68.6 ± 5.8a
Total energy content CAL cal 0.63 4115 ± 10a 4095 ± 10d 4112 ± 12ab 4110 ± 11b 4106 ± 12c
  1. aAverage ± standard deviationbFor each trait, different letters designate values that are significantly different from one another, α < 0.05