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Table 1 Volatile compounds of Erythroxylum coca and E. fischeri released from untreated twigs (control) and jasmonic acid-treated twigs (JA treatment)

From: CYP79D enzymes contribute to jasmonic acid-induced formation of aldoximes and other nitrogenous volatiles in two Erythroxylum species

  Erythroxylum coca Erythroxylum fischeri
Compound Control JA treatment P-value Control JA treatment P-value
(Mean ± SE) (Mean ± SE) (Mean ± SE) (Mean ± SE)
N-containing volatiles
 (E)-3-methylbutyraldoxime* 0.6 ± 0.4 40.1 ± 9.6 0.020 0 + 0 23.7 + 7.4 0.037
 (E)-2-methylbutyraldoxime* 0.4 ± 0.4 51.5 ± 9.7 0.018 0 + 0 16.1 + 10.6 0.037
 (Z)-2-methylbutyraldoxime* 0.2 ± 0.2 9.5 ± 2.2 0.018 0 + 0 4.4 + 1.3 0.037
 (Z)-3-methylbutyraldoxime* 0 ± 0 29.7 ± 6.6 0.014 0 + 0 17.1 + 7.2 0.037
 benzyl cyanide* 0.1 ± 0.1 315.6 ± 76.5 0.018 2.1 + 1.2 241 + 199.7 0.050
 phenylnitroethane 3.7 ± 0.7 99 ± 26.4 0.021 7.7 + 4.6 62.4 + 39.8 0.050
 unidentified nitro compound 0.1 ± 0.1 3.1 ± 0.9 0.018 0.8 + 0.8 21 + 11.8 0.046
 indole* 4.5 ± 2 256.2 ± 50.3 0.021 2.1 + 1 13.2 + 2.3 0.050
monoterpenoids
 myrcene* 4.7 ± 0.8 29.2 ± 3.5 0.021 5.7 + 1.8 36.1 + 4.7 0.050
 (Z)-ocimene* 4.2 ± 0.5 107.7 ± 19.9 0.021 4.2 + 1.5 83.4 + 9.8 0.050
 (E)-ocimene* 289.1 ± 54.1 14685.7 ± 4017.2 0.021 281.3 + 105.8 9257 + 847.3 0.050
 allo-ocimene 0 ± 0 15.6 ± 2 0.014 0 + 0 1.7 + 0.4 0.037
 mentha-1,5,8-triene 1.1 ± 0.2 25.6 ± 3.3 0.021 10.7 + 6.2 572.7 + 252.6 0.050
 (Z)-linalool oxide 6.7 ± 1.6 130.7 ± 30.8 0.021 2.6 + 0.9 16.8 + 3 0.050
 (E)-epoxy-ocimene 3.5 ± 0.6 780.2 ± 152.6 0.021 1.4 + 0.4 105.6 + 43.6 0.050
 linalool* 64.4 ± 20.1 1709.8 ± 555.1 0.021 56 + 23.3 178.6 + 16.8 0.050
 unidentified monoterpene 1 0 ± 0 6.5 ± 0.7 0.014 0.9 + 0.4 19.8 + 6.6 0.050
 unidentified monoterpene oxide 1 0.1 ± 0.1 9 ± 1.9 0.018 0 + 0 1.9 + 1.4 0.121
 unidentified monoterpene oxide 2 0.3 ± 0.2 11.5 ± 1.9 0.020 0 + 0 6 + 0.3 0.037
sesquiterpenoids
 β-elemene* 133.6 ± 32.4 208.2 ± 48.7 0.248 0 + 0 1 + 0 0.037
 (E)-β-caryophyllene* 79.4 ± 17.1 72.9 ± 9.8 0.564 0.2 + 0.2 5.3 + 0.3 0.046
 (Z,E)-α-farnesene 1.8 ± 1.8 16.2 ± 2.6 0.018 0 + 0 3.1 + 1.5 0.037
 (E,E)-α-farnesene 17.5 ± 5.2 76.5 ± 14.6 0.021 240.4 + 176.9 1505.1 + 698.4 0.127
 unidentified sesquiterpene 1 10.7 ± 4.9 26.6 ± 3.8 0.083 0.6 + 0.3 6.4 + 0.6 0.050
 unidentified sesquiterpene 2 9.8 ± 4.4 20.9 ± 2.8 0.083 0.1 + 0.1 3.3 + 0.3 0.046
 unidentified sesquiterpene 3 13.6 ± 5.8 24.7 ± 3.7 0.083 0 + 0 0.3 + 0.3 0.317
 unidentified sesquiterpene 4 12.8 ± 7.5 46.5 ± 13.5 0.083 8.8 + 6.3 42.2 + 14.9 0.127
 unidentified sesquiterpene 5 4.1 ± 2.4 19.8 ± 4.5 0.042 0.5 + 0.3 1.4 + 0.2 0.050
 unidentified sesquiterpene 6 12 ± 3.3 23.6 ± 4 0.043 0 + 0 0.6 + 0.6 0.317
homoterpenes
 DMNT* 91.2 ± 20.2 112.1 ± 25.7 0.773 14.8 + 6.3 51.6 + 25.4 0.127
 TMTT* 524.6 ± 138.9 1009.9 ± 218.1 0.043 187.6 + 91.2 630.5 + 159.4 0.050
diterpenes
 geranyl linalool* 3.8 ± 1 19.2 ± 3.9 0.021 0 + 0 0 + 0 NA
GLVs and ester
 (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate* 9.5 ± 3.8 15.7 ± 2.6 0.149 4.6 + 2.3 80.5 + 32.6 0.050
 (E)-2-hexenyl acetate 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 NA 4.6 + 1 21.3 + 9 0.275
 (Z)-3-hexenol* 0.1 ± 0.1 0 ± 0 0.317 0 + 0 11.3 + 0.3 0.037
 (Z)-3-hexenyl propionate 13.1 ± 3.1 81.5 ± 14.8 0.021 1.9 + 0.6 14.8 + 7.9 0.050
 (Z)-3-hexenyl isobutyrate 2.3 ± 0.2 91.5 ± 17.5 0.014 2.5 + 0.5 55 + 14.2 0.037
 (Z)-3-hexenyl 2-methylbutanoate 0 ± 0 65.2 ± 24.7 0.047 0 + 0 8.2 + 4.5 0.121
 (E)-3-hexenyl hexanoate 2.2 ± 0.5 36.7 ± 5.7 0.021 0.7 + 0.2 4.7 + 0.9 0.050
 (Z)-3-hexenyl tiglate 35.4 ± 8.2 132.3 ± 18.1 0.021 1.2 + 0.3 6.2 + 1.5 0.050
 unidentified ester 0 ± 0 6.1 ± 1 0.021 0 + 0 1.8 + 0.2 0.050
alcohols
 benzyl alcohol* 4.9 ± 1.4 53.1 ± 7 0.021 0.1 + 0.1 3.4 + 3.1 0.246
 2-phenylethanol* 1.3 ± 0.3 104.3 ± 24.2 0.021 1 + 0.8 36.4 + 33.9 0.127
unidentified compounds
 unidentified compound 1 3.6 ± 0.7 39.5 ± 4.5 0.021 3.1 + 1.1 40.2 + 5.5 0.050
 unidentified compound 2 0 ± 0 24 ± 4.6 0.014 0 + 0 5.5 + 2.1 0.037
 unidentified compound 3 3.8 ± 0.6 35.7 ± 6.8 0.021 2.6 + 0.8 32.9 + 12.7 0.050
 unidentified compound 4 0.1 ± 0.1 16.7 ± 3.2 0.018 0 + 0 14.7 + 5.9 0.037
 unidentified compound 5 1.4 ± 0.9 31.4 ± 9.7 0.020 0 + 0 0 + 0 NA
 unidentified compound 6 1.3 ± 1.3 85 ± 22.8 0.018 0 + 0 1.8 + 0.3 0.037
 unidentified compound 7 56.4 ± 12.5 71 ± 7.2 0.386 21 + 10.7 41 + 12.1 0.275
 unidentified compound 8 0 ± 0 12.9 ± 2.3 0.014 0 + 0 2.9 + 0.7 0.037
 unidentified compound 9 0.5 ± 0.2 10.1 ± 1.1 0.021 0.5 + 0.3 9.7 + 1.7 0.050
 unidentified compound 10 0.5 ± 0.2 18.8 ± 0.9 0.021 0.6 + 0.4 9.5 + 0.3 0.050
 unidentified compound 11 1.9 ± 0.3 13.8 ± 0.6 0.021 0.6 + 0.2 7.2 + 0.8 0.050
 unidentified compound 12 0 ± 0 10.7 ± 0.4 0.014 0 + 0 5.2 + 0.5 0.037
 unidentified compound 13 0 ± 0 27.6 ± 5.6 0.014 0 + 0 7.1 + 7.1 0.317
total volatiles 1508 ± 322 21101 ± 4605 0.021 874 ± 402 13351 ± 458 0.050
  1. Emission rates are displayed as means ± SE in ng g-1 fresh weight h-1 (E. coca, n = 4; E. fischeri, n = 3). P-values are based on the results from Kruskal-Wallis rank sum tests between the control and the JA-treatment. P-values ≤ 0.05 indicate significant differences and are shown in bold. Compounds identified using authentic standards are marked with asterisks (*). Unmarked compounds were identified by comparison of their mass spectra with those of reference libraries