Induction of defense genes in the shoots of Arabidopsis seedlings 1 and 14 days after the fungal treatments, relative to the untreated control. The data represents fold induction (mRNA level +fungal treatments/mRNA level -fungal treatments; fold of control is set as 1.0). For experimental details, cf. Methods, Additional file 1: Figure S1 and legend to Figure 2A. The data are based on 5 independent experiments with 16 seedlings each. Bars represent SDs. Asterisks indicate significant differences, as determined by Student's t-test (* P ≤ 0.05; **P ≤ 0.01; *** P ≤ 0.001).