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Table 3 Intraspecific variation in the pollination characteristics of E. veratrifolia in the Eastern Himalayas and Israel (Ivri & Dafni, 1977). + = character present; - = character absent

From: The evolution of floral deception in Epipactis veratrifolia (Orchidaceae): from indirect defense to pollination

Characteristic Israel Eastern Himalayas
Anther cap green + +
Aphids black + -
Aphids green - +
Nectar secretion + -
Natural fruit set 0.155 0.33 –0.548