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Table 2 Quantitative analysis of emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

From: Secretions from the ventral eversible gland of Spodoptera exigua caterpillars activate defense-related genes and induce emission of volatile organic compounds in tomato, Solanum lycopersicum

VOCs KI VEGI VEGA MI Undamaged
(E)-2-Hexenal 855 14.10(1.94)a 2.53(0.99)b 3.40(0.93)b 1.7(0.32)b
(Z)-3-Hexenal 865 10.27(0.19)a 1.94(0.33)b 1.70(0.24)b 0.46(0.03)b
(Z)-2 Hexenol 858 13.07(2.53)a 1.24(0.03)b 2.86(0.20)b nd
α-Pinene 939 15.867(1.40)a 10.47(0.78)a 11.82(1.09)a 5.76(0.01)b
β-Pinene 979 1.34(0.54)a 2.29(0.64)a 1.99(0.14)a 0.61(0.20)b
3-Octanol 991 27.39(1.27)a 2.43(0.24)b 3.42(0.60)b nd
(Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate 1002 10.09(1.77)a 1.75(0.16)b 1.25(1.34)b nd
β-Phellendrene 1030 19.79(1.91)a 20.01(1.57)a 26.27(1.85)a nd
β-Ocimene 1040 16.58(1.23)a 17.07(1.31)a 15.52(0.36)a nd
β-linalool 1026 19.52(1.70)a 10.66(0.77)b 10.30(1.66)b nd
α- Terpinene 1060 16.79(1.03)a 3.19(0.72)b 3.33(1.17)b nd
Nonanal 1101 10.82(1.65)a 3.66(1.74)b 3.30(0.51)b nd
Methyl salicylate 1190 13.14(1.06)a 6.73(0.32)b 7.97(0.47)b nd
Decanal 1202 174.38(1.63)a 82.27(2.54)b 99.68(4.64)b nd
δ--Elemene 1338 32.85(1.20)a 3.69(0.03)b 4.96(0.71)b nd
β- Elemene 1319 19.89(5.46)a 9.06(1.22)b 8.24(0.52)b 1.76(0.21)c
(Z)- β- Caryophyllene 1455 106.94(3.61)a 88.33(10.91)b 93.10(3.13)b 0.86(0.06)c
  1. Table shows emission of VOCs ( μg g-1 fwt) by tomato plants damaged by caterpillars with the VEG intact (VEGI), plants damaged by caterpillars with the VEG ablated (VEGA), mechanically injured (MI) plants, and undamaged (control) plants.Data were collected from three plants (i.e. 3 biological replicates) per treatment. Means (±SEM) within the same row having different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05). Kovats retention index (KI) is indicated for each compound. nd = not detected.