Expression levels of selected cell-cycle, autophagy and protein-degradation genes. Values are shown as fold expression. Expression levels in empty-vector control (white columns) is always 1; black columns represent expression levels in the VMP1-deficient mutant. (A) Expression of selected regulators of the cell cycle. (B) Expression of autophagy regulators and markers and of sporangin. (C) Expression of genes involved in protein degradation. Expression levels were measured by qRT-PCR. Error bars represent standard deviations from three technical replicates. Stars represent the statistical significance for each gene: (no stars) 0.05 < p, (*) 0.01 < p < 0.05, (**) 0.001 < p < 0.01, (***) p < 0.001.