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Table 2 Influence of pre-bloom (PB) and veraison defoliation (V) on agronomic parameters, ripening parameters, and the flavonol and anthocyanin content of Sangiovese berries compared to non-defoliated controls (C) at harvest

From: Selective defoliation affects plant growth, fruit transcriptional ripening program and flavonoid metabolism in grapevine

   C PB V
Agronomic parameters Yield/vine (kg) 6.3 a 4.4 b 5.5 a
Cluster number/vine 16 16 16
Cluster weight (g) 394 a 280 b 343 a
Berry weight (g) 2.37 2.26 2.33
Berry number/cluster 166 a 124 b 147 a
Cluster compactness (OIV rating) 7.5 6.8 7.8
Bunch rot/cluster (%) 5 2.1 2.3
Sunburn damage/cluster (%) 0.36 b 1.24 b 6.45 a
Leaf area/yield (m2/kg) 0.6 b 0.8 a 0.5 b
Berry skin thickness (μm) 232.3 b 255.6 a 223.8 b
Ripening parameters °Brix 20.8 b 22.2 a 20.7 b
TA (g/L) 7.6 a 6.8 b 6.7 b
pH 3.38 b 3.45 a 3.45 a
Flavonols Total flavonols (mg/g of skin) 0.32 b 0.71 a 0.67 a
Quercetin (%) 79.5 b 83.3 a 84.5 a
Myricetin (%) 17.7 a 11.4 b 10.5 b
Kaempferol (%) 2.8 b 5.3 a 5.0 a
Anthocyanins Total anthocyanins (mg/g of skin) 4.87 ab 5.35 a 4.33 b
Delphinidin-3-G (%) 15 15.3 15.2
Cyanidin-3-G (%) 28.7 b 32.8 ab 42.3 a
Petunidin-3-G (%) 14.5 14 12.2
Peonidin-3-G (%) 13.5 14.3 13.1
Malvidin-3-G (%) 28.3 a 23.6 ab 17.2 b
34-OH anthocyanins (%) 42.2 b 47.1 ab 55.3 a
345-OH anthocyanins (%) 57.8 a 52.9 a 44.7 b
  1. Means within rows followed by different letters differ significantly at p < 0.05 according to the Student–Newman–Keuls test.