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Table 3 Associations between individual polymorphisms or LD groups and biomass yield and agronomic traits.

From: Polymorphisms in monolignol biosynthetic genes are associated with biomass yield and agronomic traits in European maize (Zea mays L.)

Gene Position Associated trait R^2% Identified by
PAL 947-1655LD,1 DTS 7.4% GLM*, MLM**
4CL2 192, 217LD, 2 PHT 14.3% GLM*, MLM*
COMT 2358 DTS 10.3% GLM*
F5H 65 DTS 22.4% GLM**
4CL1 454 DTS 20.2% GLM*, MLM*
  810 DTS 6.0% GLM*, MLM**
CCoAOMT2 75,144, 406LD,3 DMC 23.5% GLM*, MLM*
  663 PHT 25.8% GLM*
  663 DTS 18.5% GLM*, MLM**
  663 DMC 10.5% GLM*, MLM**
  1. Positions of trait associated polymorphisms are presented according to public reference sequences.
  2. LD linkage group in a linkage block; 1 the LD group contains 17 polymorphisms in complete LD in PAL and 947 and 1655 are the first and last polymorphisms; 2 the LD group contains two polymorphisms which are in complete LD; 3 the LD group contains three polymorphisms with r2 > 0.89. Associations identified by GLM were after controlling multiple testing, while those identified by MLM were not. Polymorphism positions are denoted by the position in our alignment; R2% is the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the detected polymorphisms/LD group; * and ** mean P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively.
  3. 4CL: 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, C3H: p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase, C4H: cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, CAD: cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, CCoAOMT: caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, COMT: caffeic acid O-methyltransferase, F5H: ferulate 5-hydroxylase; PHT: plant height in cm; DTS: days from sowing to silking; DMC: % dry matter content of stover; DMY: dry matter yield of stover in tons per hectare