Optimization of the EMS concentration for N. caerulescens mutagenesis. Seeds were imbibed with four different ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) concentrations and a control treatment with only distilled water (control) for 16 hrs in the dark. Plants were grown from these seeds, vernalized and allowed to flower upon which different traits were determined. A The number of seeds per silique, the number of siliques per inflorescence, and the number of seeds per inflorescence of seeds from different EMS treatments, presented in grey, white and dark bars. Data show the average of 3–5 plants ± SE. B Representative examples of the inflorescences of plants treated with the indicated EMS concentration.