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Table 1 Effect of interaction drought stress (DS) × chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) on some biochemical and physiological traits in leaves of S.abrotanoides

From: Chitosan nanoparticles improve physiological and biochemical responses of Salvia abrotanoides (Kar.) under drought stress

DS×CNPs RWC EC Sugar Chl CAR Proline Phenol FLAV Protein SOD PPO GPO
D1 × C1 82.14a 19.91a 12.58h 1.02a 0.053a 10.89f-h 65.50e 0.85a 20.13d 1.71f 5.62h 4.07g
D1 × C2 80.35a 21.69a 12.88gh 1.16a 0.053a 8.81h 79.25d 0.85a 21.99cd 1.78f 5.94h 4.46fg
D1 × C3 79.63a 27.07a 14.95f 1.14a 0.052a 9.38gh 77.60d 1.00a 20.44d 1.76f 6.70gh 4.82e-g
D1 × C4 77.95a 28.09a 14.72fg 1.38a 0.067a 13.64f-h 84.75cd 1.07a 21.64cd 3.73e 6.73gh 5.29d-f
D2 × C1 69.76a 37.18a 22.91d 0.54a 0.025a 14.18e-g 83.82d 0.91a 16.78e 3.80e 7.24fg 5.21d-g
D2 × C2 78.19a 29.73a 25.91c 0.68a 0.032a 11.90f-h 93.67b 1.09a 23.70bc 4.06de 8.26ef 6.04cd
D2 × C3 72.32a 29.92a 36.36a 0.74a 0.034a 29.13a 109.00a 1.40a 29.63a 6.62c 9.80c 6.91bc
D2 × C4 73.99a 28.29a 26.06c 0.88a 0.042a 19.58b-d 105.09a 1.19a 30.66a 9.05a 11.92b 7.04b
D3 × C1 65.61a 46.47a 19.53e 0.54a 0.024a 15.76d-f 84.57cd 0.96a 12.78f 3.79e 8.50de 5.59de
D3 × C2 69.22a 39.45a 23.50d 0.55a 0.027da 18.87c-e 91.80bc 1.26a 23.61bc 4.46d 9.59cd 5.79de
D3 × C3 75.12a 35.93a 33.31b 0.69a 0.030a 24.43ab 95.05b 1.51a 17.93e 8.02b 10.57c 7.57b
D3 × C4 68.05a 30.05a 22.02d 0.73a 0.037a 23.23bc 95.05b 1.49a 25.64b 7.05c 14.69a 9.83a
  1. Values are means ± SD (n = 4). According to Duncan’s Multiple Range Test, different letters in the same column indicate significant differences among treatments (P ≤ 0.05). D: Drought stress, D1: 100% FC, D2: 50% FC, D3: 30% FC. C: Chitosan nanoparticles, C1: 0 ppm, C2: 30 ppm, C3: 60 ppm, C4: 90 ppm. Relative water content (RWC) and electrolyte conductivity (EC) (%), total chlorophyll (Chl), carotenoid (CAR) and soluble sugar (mg/g FW), proline and protein (μmol/g FW), total phenol and total flavonoid (FLAV) (mg/g FW), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPO), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) (U mg− 1 protein)