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Table 5 Disease severity scale of witches’ broom disease in N. indicum

From: Combined transcriptome and metabolome analysis of Nerium indicum L. elaborates the key pathways that are activated in response to witches’ broom disease

Infection category Grading of witches’ broom disease at individual level Grading of witches’ broom disease at branch level Value/Score
Level 1 No observable infection No observable infection 0
Level 2 The % of infected branches to the total was < 25% The twig grows in an acropetal sequence with very thin stems and little leaves, but only for single twig without cluster phenomenon 1
Level 3 The % of infected branches to the total was 26–50% The lateral buds grew out, several lateral branches clustered together, and the smaller leaves were not withering 2
Level 4 The % of infected branches to the total was 51–75% The lateral buds repeatedly grew out with distributed small clumps, and the smaller leaves either withered or fell off 3
Level 5 The % of infected branches to the total was > 75% The lateral buds repeatedly grew out with comprehensively distributed clumps of the culm 4