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Table 2 Extraction techniques of pigments from fruits

From: Fruit ripening: dynamics and integrated analysis of carotenoids and anthocyanins

Pigment Fruits Pigment extracted Extraction Method Reference
CAROTENOIDS Metabolite Profiling: matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of- flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS), High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) [50]
[51]
Tomato Gac Fruit Peel Lycopeneβ-carotene, lycopene, and lutein Atmospheric liquid extraction and maceration [52]
[53]
Apricot, Peach and Tunisian Kaki β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin Accelerated solvent extraction [54]
Carrot β-carotene Microwave- assisted extraction [55]
Tomato Lycopene Enzyme-assisted extraction [56]
Pomegranate β-carotene, lutein Green extraction [57]
ANTHOCYANINS Metabolite Profiling: matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS), High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) [58]
[59]
Blue berry, Cherry, red pear peel glucosides, galactosides, rutinosides and arabinosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin, malvidin, Solvent extraction
Ultrasound-assisted extraction
[60]
Blueberries glucodsides of delphinidin, cyanidin, malvidin, Aqueous extraction method (Box-Behnken design) [61]
Figs cyanidin 3-rutinoside Heat, microwave, and ultrasound assisted extraction [62]
Blackberry cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-O-6″ malonyl-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-6″-dioxalyl-glucoside Pressurized fluid extraction [63]
CHLOROPHYLL Metabolite Profiling: matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS), High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) [64]
[65]
Spinach chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids Electric Field and enzyme assisted extraction [66] [67]