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Table 1 Morphological traits used to distinguish between B. alternifolia, B. crispa and B. × wardii

From: Natural hybridization between two butterfly bushes in Tibet: dominance of F1 hybrids promotes strong reproductive isolation

Characters B. alternifolia B. × wardii B. crispa F Welch P value
L (mm) 16.00 ± 3.15a 27.31 ± 10.02b 64.65 ± 25.47c   62.971 < 0.001
W (mm) 3.62 ± 0.66a 14.00 ± 3.26b 36.61 ± 11.72c   235.112 < 0.001
L/W 4.52 ± 0.99a 1.94 ± 0.47b 1.76 ± 0.31b   97.410 < 0.001
TL (mm) 7.10 ± 0.80a 9.77 ± 1.04b 10.25 ± 1.51b   79.584 0.017
TW (mm) 0.93 ± 0.17a 1.09 ± 0.15b 1.20 ± 0.18c 17.584   0.641
CLL (mm) 1.43 ± 0.27a 2.29 ± 0.37b 2.17 ± 0.40b 49.695   0.073
CLW (mm) 1.60 ± 0.20a 2.41 ± 0.35b 2.45 ± 0.46b   80.282 0.004
AH (mm) 5.22 ± 0.76a 5.97 ± 0.93b 6.66 ± 0.96c 18.266   0.539
SL (mm) 2.89 ± 0.47a 4.14 ± 0.91b 4.41 ± 1.05b   46.621 0.001
HE (mm) 1.08 ± 0.67 0.75 ± 0.72 0.95 ± 0.87 1.261   0.588
  1. 1 L leaf length, W leaf width, L/W ratio of leaf length to leaf width, TL corolla tube length, TW corolla tube width, CLL corolla lobe length, CLW corolla lobe width, AH anther height, SL style length, HE herkogamy