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Table 1 List of enzymes detected in the different parts/zones of N. khasiana leaf with their corresponding transcript IDs, BLAST results and transcript abundance (FPKM) in the different parts/zones of the N. khasiana leaf. These enzymes were earlier detected/ isolated from Nepenthes pitcher fluids and known to play a role in prey digestion and protection against pathogen attack. A complete and more detailed list of all the enzymes detected in the N. khasiana leaf can be found in Additional file 2: Table S4

From: Pitchers of Nepenthes khasiana express several digestive-enzyme encoding genes, harbor mostly fungi and probably evolved through changes in the expression of leaf polarity genes

Sl. No. Enzyme Transcript ID BLAST Transcript abundance (FPKM)a P value
Leaf base Tendril Digestive zone Waxy zone Lid
1 Acid phosphatase DN46307_c0_g2_i1 PREDICTED: probable purple acid phosphatase 20 [Gossypium hirsutum] 0.31 ± 0.04 0.80 ± 0.05 25.32 ± 13.57 0.40 ± 0.17 0.20 ± 0.16 0.0302
DN46369_c0_g1_i1 PREDICTED: probable purple acid phosphatase 20 [Eucalyptus grandis] 2.16 ± 1.44 1.37 ± 0.16 20.44 ± 0.19 0.74 ± 0.15 0.22 ± 0.08 0.0001
DN46369_c0_g1_i4 PREDICTED: probable purple acid phosphatase 20 [Eucalyptus grandis] 2.42 ± 0.70 1.53 ± 0.24 23.33 ± 4.14 0.79 ± 0.31 0.12 ± 0.04 0.0002
2 Aspartic proteinase DN32357_c0_g1_i1 RecName: Full = Aspartic proteinase nepenthesin-1; AltName: Full = Nepenthesin-I; Flags: Precursor 0.10 ± 0.08 0.00 ± 0.00 227.32 ± 188.36 0.00 ± 0.00 0.02 ± 0.03 0.1359
DN46672_c0_g1_i1 Nepenthesin-2-like protein [Nepenthes mirabilis] 0.00 ± 0.00 0.02 ± 0.02 29.68 ± 18.62 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.0521
DN48653_c0_g1_i1 Aspartic protease [Nepenthes alata] 0.12 ± 0.05 0.00 ± 0.00 93.48 ± 69.04 4.38 ± 0.78 0.83 ± 0.75 0.0977
DN96960_c0_g1_i1 Nepenthesin II [Nepenthes ovata] 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 387.83 ± 150.84 0.07 ± 0.10 0.13 ± 0.19 0.0072
3 Chitinase DN167792_c0_g1_i1 Class IV chitinase [Nepenthes alata] 0.33 ± 0.25 0.09 ± 0.03 569.95 ± 244.98 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.0112
DN168202_c0_g1_i1 Basic endochitinase A [Ananas comosus] 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 21.45 ± 23.10 2.94 ± 1.74 0.46 ± 0.49 0.3042
DN43389_c0_g2_i1 Class IV chitinase [Nepenthes alata] 0.08 ± 0.12 0.02 ± 0.03 426.64 ± 203.61 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.0175
DN43389_c0_g2_i2 Class IV chitinase [Nepenthes alata] 0.19 ± 0.26 0.02 ± 0.03 795.95 ± 318.67 0.00 ± 0.00 0.03 ± 0.04 0.0082
DN61615_c0_g1_i1 Acidic endochitinase [Nepenthes singalana] 129.27 ± 72.25 43.13 ± 9.23 1472.88 ± 71.20 41.40 ± 13.71 42.40 ± 2.44 0.0001
DN61615_c0_g1_i2 Acidic endochitinase [Nepenthes singalana] 97.15 ± 117.68 29.70 ± 28.23 878.25 ± 912.14 29.37 ± 30.72 24.26 ± 23.22 0.2960
4 C-terminal peptidase DN61492_c2_g1_i14 C-terminal peptidase [Nepenthes alata] 5.21 ± 1.74 4.03 ± 5.33 92.21 ± 15.31 0.23 ± 0.28 0.00 ± 0.00 0.0002
DN61492_c2_g1_i9 C-terminal peptidase [Nepenthes alata] 10.72 ± 0.67 0.77 ± 0.01 156.87 ± 121.48 0.19 ± 0.27 0.04 ± 0.06 0.1155
DN61492_c2_g2_i1 C-terminal peptidase [Nepenthes alata] 0.00 ± 0.00 0.02 ± 0.02 147.31 ± 2.44 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.0001
DN61492_c2_g2_i2 C-terminal peptidase [Nepenthes alata] 0.02 ± 0.03 0.03 ± 0.01 237.00 ± 124.39 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.0259
DN61492_c2_g1_i2 C-terminal peptidase [Nepenthes alata] 12.10 ± 8.00 4.19 ± 5.09 66.36 ± 21.25 0.24 ± 0.26 0.01 ± 0.02 0.0056
5 Defensin DN3077_c0_g2_i1 PREDICTED: defensin Ec-AMP-D1-like [Ziziphus jujuba] 0.06 ± 0.09 0.00 ± 0.00 116.53 ± 8.96 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.0001
6 Esterase/lipase DN43304_c0_g1_i1 GDSL esterase/lipase 7-like 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 7.12 ± 6.45 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.1777
DN43304_c0_g2_i1 GDSL esterase/lipase 7-like 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 9.43 ± 9.72 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.2517
7 Glucanase DN60686_c0_g1_i1 Glucanase [Nepenthes khasiana] 1.50 ± 2.13 28.92 ± 38.04 218.24 ± 254.42 2.80 ± 3.53 1.64 ± 2.16 0.3692
DN24941_c0_g1_i3 Beta-1,3-glucanase [Nepenthes alata] 0.68 ± 0.96 46.74 ± 66.10 15.36 ± 21.72 0.38 ± 0.54 0.36 ± 0.51 0.5577
8 Lipid transfer protein DN14283_c0_g1_i1 Lipid transfer protein 1b, partial [Ipomoea batatas] 0.57 ± 0.08 0.18 ± 0.03 498.38 ± 55.17 0.10 ± 0.15 0.10 ± 0.14 0.0001
9 Peroxidase DN61358_c1_g2_i4 Putative peroxidase [Nepenthes alata] 5.13 ± 1.74 21.76 ± 13.13 5.27 ± 0.21 0.71 ± 0.40 1.44 ± 0.89 0.0744
DN42192_c0_g1_i1 Putative peroxidase 27 [Nepenthes mirabilis] 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 19.64 ± 20.31 0.09 ± 0.13 0.00 ± 0.00 0.2547
DN42192_c0_g1_i2 Putative peroxidase 27 [Nepenthes mirabilis] 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 87.53 ± 71.76 0.09 ± 0.13 0.13 ± 0.19 0.1317
10 Polyketide synthase DN62323_c0_g1_i1 Type III polyketide synthase [Drosophyllum lusitanicum] 12.30 ± 12.19 11.93 ± 1.17 51.86 ± 3.84 1.47 ± 0.16 1.47 ± 1.04 0.0015
DN62323_c0_g2_i1 Type III polyketide synthase [Drosophyllum lusitanicum] 15.71 ± 7.35 22.25 ± 13.43 98.14 ± 61.61 2.30 ± 1.33 2.71 ± 0.71 0.0814
DN62323_c1_g1_i1 Type III polyketide synthase [Drosophyllum lusitanicum] 0.00 ± 0.00 0.44 ± 0.08 8.02 ± 1.50 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.0002
DN62323_c2_g2_i1 Type III polyketide synthase [Drosophyllum lusitanicum] 2.06 ± 0.41 7.79 ± 4.81 36.59 ± 13.35 1.36 ± 0.07 0.43 ± 0.02 0.0095
DN62323_c2_g2_i2 Type III polyketide synthase [Drosophyllum lusitanicum] 1.36 ± 1.40 4.61 ± 0.32 23.77 ± 4.78 0.95 ± 0.51 0.56 ± 0.16 0.0006
DN62323_c2_g2_i6 Type III polyketide synthase [Drosophyllum lusitanicum] 12.95 ± 11.27 14.24 ± 2.11 56.92 ± 3.31 1.69 ± 0.46 1.62 ± 0.83 0.0007
DN62323_c2_g2_i7 Type III polyketide synthase [Drosophyllum lusitanicum] 17.67 ± 4.59 28.56 ± 22.35 124.77 ± 99.27 2.81 ± 2.05 3.21 ± 1.42 0.1695
11 Phosphatase DN6769_c0_g2_i1 Putative nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase [Nepenthes mirabilis] 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 21.94 ± 18.02 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.1322
12 Ribonuclease DN31936_c0_g1_i1 S-like ribonuclease [Nepenthes bicalcarata] 0.08 ± 0.11 0.29 ± 0.07 241.43 ± 183.27 0.13 ± 0.13 0.07 ± 0.10 0.1026
DN31936_c0_g1_i2 S-like ribonuclease [Nepenthes bicalcarata] 0.15 ± 0.21 0.27 ± 0.09 340.78 ± 42.77 0.13 ± 0.13 0.09 ± 0.07 0.0001
13 Serine Carboxypeptidase DN40795_c0_g2_i1 Putative serine carboxypeptidase type 3 [Nepenthes mirabilis] 0.00 ± 0.00 0.01 ± 0.02 89.08 ± 30.19 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.0039
DN40795_c0_g2_i2 Putative serine carboxypeptidase type 3 [Nepenthes mirabilis] 0.02 ± 0.02 0.00 ± 0.00 65.12 ± 26.85 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.0093
DN55176_c1_g1_i1 Serine carboxypeptidase II-3-like [Sesamum indicum] 0.09 ± 0.08 0.47 ± 0.03 28.15 ± 22.32 0.06 ± 0.03 0.06 ± 0.09 0.1203
14 Thaumatin-like protein DN58459_c0_g2_i6 Pathogenesis-related protein [Tamarix hispida] 73.28 ± 41.43 55.69 ± 0.40 290.93 ± 160.73 14.97 ± 1.84 17.07 ± 6.08 0.0583
DN60173_c0_g2_i12 Thaumatin-like protein [Nepenthes × henryana] 60.85 ± 6.96 55.96 ± 27.68 1925.58 ± 1622.94 734.79 ± 774.33 15.30 ± 18.35 0.2207
DN60173_c0_g2_i2 Thaumatin-like protein [Nepenthes × henryana] 81.35 ± 49.79 160.64 ± 189.76 248.98 ± 337.33 113.83 ± 150.01 5.77 ± 1.11 0.7580
  1. aFPKM values represent mean ± SD