Overexpression of FSD3S downregulates expression of PEP-dependent genes. a Expression levels of PEP-dependent rbcL, psbA, and psaB, and NEP-dependent rpoB in wild-type and 35S::FSD3S plants grown in soil for 5 weeks. b Chloroplast structure of 5-week-old wild-type and 35S::FSD3S plants (line 1) were analyzed using ultra-microsectioning and TEM. c Expression levels of SAG12 in these plants. Expression levels were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Data represent mean values of three biological replicates, and error bars indicate SD. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences between the corresponding samples and their controls (p value < 0.01, Student’s t-test). W, 1 and 2 indicate Col-0 and the independent lines of the transgenic plants.