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Table 1 Mean concentration (mg g− 1 FW; fresh weight) of main groups of anthocyanins and flavones from petals and photosynthetic tissues of fully pigmented (F.P.), PAL and WAL phenotypes of Barra and Breña populations. Flavonoid quantification was performed from the area of the peaks detected in the chromatogram using HPLC-DAD-MSn. Four plants per phenotype and population were analyzed. Flavones were grouped according to the functional C-glycoside flavone core, the additional glycoses types and the hydroxycinnamic acid types linked to flavone skeleton. Percentages of each flavonoid groups per total flavones are shown in parentheses under concentration values. Anthocyanins (cyanidin derivatives) showed similar chemical characteristics and were grouped into a single category. “–” indicates that the compound was below the detection level

From: Stability of petal color polymorphism: the significance of anthocyanin accumulation in photosynthetic tissues

 PetalsCalycesLeavesStems
BarraBreñaBarraBreñaBarraBreñaBarraBreña
F.P.PALWALF.P.WALF.P.PALWALF.P.WALF.P.PALWALF.P.WALF.P.PALWALF.P.WAL
Anthocyanins
 Total:1.650.030.022.820.070.280.35< 0.010.23< 0.010.020.050.290.180.29
Flavones
 Total:92.595.2100.969.588.17.569.239.319.884.385.324.738.767.505.734.114.554.055.425.19
C-glycoside flavone corea
 Isovitexin86.2 (93.1)90.5 (95.1)84.2 (83.4)64.9 (93.3)78.0 (88.5)0.07 (0.96)0.08 (0.83)0.11 (1.15)0.23 (2.35)0.08 (1.91)--------0.10 (1.84)0.05 (0.90)
 Isoscoparin2.75 (2.98)1.73 (1.81)10.7 (10.6)3.36 (4.84)4.27 (4.85)0.14 (1.89)0.18 (1.97)0.15 (1.66)0.30 (3.06)0.11 (2.57)0.26 (4.95)0.36 (7.55)0.35 (3.96)0.55 (7.33)0.33 (5.74)0.23 (5.71)0.28 (6.21)0.26 (6.39)0.69 (12.7)0.52 (10.0)
 Isoorientin1.49 (1.61)0.96 (1.01)3.53 (3.49)0.73 (1.05)3.28 (3.72)6.62 (87.5)7.95 (86.1)8.25 (88.6)8.47 (85.7)3.69 (84.1)4.76 (89.5)3.68 (77.7)7.90 (90.1)6.48 (86.4)5.01 (87.4)3.67 (89.2)3.88 (85.5)3.49 (86.2)4.30 (79.4)4.02 (77.5)
 di-C-glycosides2.10 (2.27)2.00 (2.10)2.52 (2.50)0.53 (0.76)2.57 (2.92)0.73 (9.6)1.02 (11.0)0.80 (8.6)0.88 (8.93)0.50 (11.4)0.29 (5.5)0.70 (14.7)0.52 (5.89)0.47 (6.27)0.40 (6.09)0.21 (5.08)0.38 (8.32)0.30 (7.41)0.33 (6.07)0.60 (11.5)
Additional glycosesa
 Hexose0.22 (0.24)-0.77 (0.76)1.54 (2.22)3.22 (3.66)7.52 (99.5)9.17 (99.4)9.26 (99.5)9.18 (92.9)4.00 (91.2)5.31 (99.7)4.72 (99.6)8.73 (99.6)7.43 (99.0)5.68 (99.0)4.08 (99.4)4.50 (99.1)4.00 (98.8)5.38 (99.2)5.11 (98.4)
 Pentose88.0 (95.1)91.4 (96.0)92.5 (91.7)63.9 (92.0)77.5 (88.0)---------------
 Hexose and pentose2.04 (2.20)1.65 (1.73)3.27 (3.24)2.98 (4.29)3.85 (4.37)---------------
 None2.25 (2.44)2.17 (2.28)4.36 (4.32)1.06 (1.53)3.53 (4.00)0.04 (0.48)0.06 (0.63)0.05 (0.52)0.70 (7.10)0.38 (8.77)0.01 (0.28)0.02 (0.39)0.04 (0.41)0.07 (0.96)0.06 (0.98)0.02 (0.60)0.04 (0.95)0.05 (1.23)0.04 (0.80)0.08 (1.56)
Acylationa
 Acylated0.74 (0.80)1.07 (1.12)1.91 (1.90)1.58 (2.27)2.47 (2.80)6.82 (90.3)8.08 (87.6)8.35 (89.7)8.22 (83.2)3.55 (81.0)5.21 (97.9)4.50 (95.1)8.59 (98.0)7.29 (97.1)5.53 (96.5)3.90 (95.0)4.23 (93.0)3.85 (95.3)5.31 (97.9)4.92 (94.8)
 Caffeic ac.0.54 (0.58)0.89 (0.93)1.11 (1.10)0.29 (0.42)0.52 (0.59)5.37 (71.1)6.46 (70.1)6.80 (73.1)6.14 (62.1)2.66 (60.7)3.71 (69.8)3.15 (66.5)6.36 (72.6)4.50 (60.0)3.37 (58.7)3.01 (73.2)3.28 (72.2)3.02 (74.7)2.91 (53.8)2.65 (51.1)
 Ferulic ac.0.20 (0.22)0.18 (0.19)0.81 (0.80)1.29 (1.85)1.95 (2.21)1.38 (18.2)1.51 (16.3)1.46 (15.7)1.48 (15.0)0.57 (13.0)1.39 (26.1)1.16 (24.6)1.86 (21.3)2.03 (27.1)1.35 (23.5)0.84 (20.5)0.83 (18.2)0.74 (18.3)0.76 (14.0)0.81 (15.7)
p-coumaric ac.------------------1.15 (21.2)0.79 (15.2)
 Diacylated-----0.07 (0.96)0.11 (1.22)0.09 (0.96)0.61 (6.14)0.32 (7.35)0.11 (2.01)0.19 (3.98)0.36 (4.16)0.76 (10.1)0.82 (14.2)0.05 (1.28)0.12 (2.57)0.09 (2.26)0.49 (8.96)0.67 (12.8)
 None91.8 (99.2)94.2 (98.4)99.0 (98.1)67.9 (97.7)85.7 (97.2)0.74 (9.74)1.14 (12.4)0.96 (10.3)1.66 (16.8)0.83 (19.0)0.11 (2.08)0.23 (4.93)0.18 (2.02)0.22 (2.91)0.20 (3.51)0.21 (5.02)0.32 (7.00)0.19 (4.72)0.11 (2.05)0.27 (5.17)
  1. achemical characteristics of flavonoids are detailed in Additional file 4: Table S3