Skip to main content

Table 2 Main features of QTLs for yield-related traits detected in the RILs, the IF2 population, and for the mid-parental heterosis (MPH)

From: Genetic dissection of yield-related traits and mid-parent heterosis for those traits in maize (Zea mays L.)

QTL Chra Physical positionb Flanking marker RILc IF2c MPHc Detected
Ad PVE (%)e Ad Df PVE (%) Df PVE (%) Environmentsg
qEWPE1–1 1 82,577,340/87562343 PZE-101090729/PZE-101094004    −0.9 4.5 1.2    C
qEWPE1–2 1 263,740,719/285391084 PZE−101,213,558/SYN22772       5.3 1.1 C
qEWPE2 2 33,839,259/37868398 PZE-102056295/SYN28948    -1 7 2.5 5.8 1.1 E3, C
qEWPE3–1 3 39,216,459/43866921 PZE-103041998/SYN18260    2 3.9 1.3    E4, C
qEWPE3–2 3 222,552,568/224622258 SYN6986/ZM012337–0431       5.4 0.9 E3, C
qEWPE4–1 4 67,494,861/67493572 PZE-104045414/PZE-104045413       −14.8 7.4 C
qEWPE4–2 4 166,876,428/169511859 PZE-104090796/PZE-104093153    2.3 3.4 1.2 3.7 0.9 E3, C
qEWPE6 6 140,871,676/137826260 PZE-106083588/PZE-106080884    −0.2 5.7 1.7 6.1 1.3 E3, C
qEWPE7–1 7 17,478,189/46213540 PZE-107019133/PZE-107033682    −2.1 5 1.4    E4, C
qEWPE7–2 7 140,421,815/141648137 PZE-107084740/PZE-107086184    −1.2 5.6 1.6 5.6 1 C
qEWPE9–1 9 20,233,111/24141698 PZE-109019784/PZE-109023988    −4.3 2.2 2.2    E3, C
qEWPE9–2 9 55,513,159/93380517 PZE-109037929/PZA03595.2       1.7 31.6 E3, C
qEWPE9–3 9 122,305,846/130925219 PZE-109075481/PZE-109082403       5.5 1.1 C
qEWPE10–1 10 71,111,717/74412528 SYN18227/PZE-110038658    17.7 0.6 32.1    E4, C
qEWPE10–2 10 92,787,084/96757754 PZE-110049371/PZE-110051403 2.3 6.3       E2, E4, C
qEWPE10–3 10 124,526,091/131889929 PZE-110068110/SYN17753    0.5 5.9 1.9 5.2 1 E4, C
qEWPE10–4 10 142,189,873/146671358 PZE-110095199/PZE-110104601    −3.6 1 1.3 0.1 1.1 E3, C
Total PVE (%)      6.3    48.4   48.5  
qCWPE1–1 1 29,742,488/29784435 PZE-101043670/PZE-101043682       0.004 4.2 C
qCWPE1–2 1 38,445,432/39742242 SYN25114/PZE-101055771    −0.9 −0.4 2.8    E2, E3, C
qCWPE1–3 1 43,974,129/47135598 SYN13385/SYN37775 −0.6 5       E3, C
qCWPE2–1 2 54,088,944/54766726 SYN24086/PZE-102074262 −0.8 8.3       C
qCWPE2–2 2 216,546,877/217458575 PZE-102173306/PZE-102175026 0.6 4.7       E3, C
qCWPE2–3 2 233,109,376/236351458 PZE-102189664/PZE-102193611 −0.4 2.9       E3, E4, C
qCWPE3–1 3 5,439,550/10520328 SYN7905/PZE-103018221       0.02 4.3 E4, C
qCWPE3–2 3 215,375,486/216647518 SYN33394/SYN8639 −0.4 2.7       C
qCWPE4–1 4 41,851,034/56860597 PZE-104033489/PZE-104041535    1 −0.3 3.1    E3, C
qCWPE4–2 4 142,206,530/143376752 PZE-104071269/PZE-104072142    −0.1 0.9 1.1    E2, C
qCWPE4–3 4 166,876,428/169511859 PZE-104090796/PZE-104093153       0.8 4.3 C
qCWPE5 5 167,276,024/168260189 PZE-105110168/PZE-105111323    −0.9 0.4 2.1    E4, C
qCWPE6 6 6,268,078/24282498 PUT-163a-94,473,612–4863/PZE-106008406 − 0.5 3.5 −3 0.4 27.2    E3, C
qCWPE7 7 136,331,965/136273480 PZE-107081442/PZE-107081254 0.4 2.4       E2, C
qCWPE8 8 19,859,565/20691990 PZE-108020972/PZE-108021854 0.6 5.4       E3, C
qCWPE9–1 9 1,002,880/2145556 PZE-109000394/PZE-109001604 0.5 4.2       C
qCWPE9–2 9 27,177,667/26944063 PZE-109027216/PZE-109026940       0.3 4.8 E4, C
qCWPE10–1 10 96,757,754/103084814 PZE-110051403/PZE-110054264    0.02 1 1.5    C
qCWPE10–2 10 124,526,091/131889929 PZE-110068110/SYN17753       1.1 5.5 E4, C
qCWPE10–3 10 142,189,873/146124494 PZE-110095199/PZE-110103156       −0.04 5.2 C
qCWPE10–4 10 148,503,131/149436870 PZE−110,109,359/PZE-110111130    -1 −0.2 2.6    C
Total PVE (%)      38.9    40.5   28.3  
qEL1–1 1 38,445,432/42018755 SYN25114/PZE-101058322 −0.3 6.1 −0.4 − 0.2 6.5    E1, E2, C
qEL1–2 1 260,149,117/263740719 SYN275/PZE-101213558       0.1 4.2 C
qEL2–1 2 7,623,080/7665252 PZE-102017304/PZE-102017443 −0.3 4.5 −0.4 0.04 5.5    E1, E2, E3, C
qEL2–2 2 27,562,776/31293233 PZE-102049280/SYN314 −0.3 5.5       E1, E3, C
qEL2–3 2 67,912,086/71361486 PZE-102082146/PZE-102083803    −0.2 0.5 6    C
qEL2–4 2 148,660,513/151604997 SYN34894/SYN13599       0.4 2.2 C
qEL3–1 3 24,739,373/29653189 PZE-103032109/PZE-103036266    0.3 −0.1 3.5 0.4 2.5 E3, C
qEL3–2 3 175,554,472/176784418 PZE-103115618/PZE-103118170    0.1 −0.4 3.5    E3, C
qEL3–3 3 208,785,867/210358171 SYN28063/SYN20833 −0.3 3.9 −0.3 0.1 4.4    E1, C
qEL5–1 5 135,189,300/135840044 PZE-105093385/SYN32229 0.3 5.1       E2, C
qEL5–2 5 205,552,836/208935009 PZE-105156713/PZE-105165053    0.3 − 0.1 3.1    E2, C
qEL5–3 5 211,173,150/214059839 SYN9389/SYN14680    0.3 0.2 3.6    C
qEL6–1 6 140,848,748/140871676 PZE-106083557/PZE-106083588    0.1 0.3 2.7    C
qEL6–2 6 141,080,410/161454721 PZE-106083873/PZE-106115356       0.4 2.7 E4, C
qEL7 7 136,331,965/136273480 PZE-107081442/PZE-107081254 0.3 6.9       E1, E2, C
qEL8 8 90,188,031/101409730 SYN9237/PZE-108056460       0.9 12 E3, C
qEL10–1 10 5,761,296/6537076 PZE-110007326/PZE-110008811    0.3 0.2 4.7    E4, C
qEL10–2 10 102,323,080/124526091 PZE-110053918/PZE-110068110 0.3 5.7       E2, C
Total PVE (%)      37.6    43.6   23.6  
qED1–1 1 15,808,888/16371704 PZE-101026314/PZE-101027182    −0.4 0.3 0.9    E3, C
qED1–2 1 43,974,129/47135598 SYN13385/SYN37775 −0.4 3.9       C
qED2–1 2 7,623,080/7665252 PZE-102017304/PZE-102017443    0.5 −0.1 1.2    E3, E4, C
qED2–2 2 107,767,553/113810085 PZE-102094429/PZE-102097841    2.2 0.03 18.8    C
qED2–3 2 143,268,372/145993939 SYN11831/PZE-102112161 −0.4 4.3       E2, E3, C
qED3–1 3 184,601,452/184674522 SYN23237/SYN23245       0.1 4.5 C
qED3–2 3 211,968,759/213654405 PZE-103161091/PZE-103163529 0.4 3.4       E2, C
qED4 4 166,876,428/169511859 PZE-104090796/PZE-104093153       0.4 4.3 C
qED6 6 6,268,078/24282498 PUT-163a-94,473,612–4863/PZE-106008406 −0.5 6.8       E1, E2, E4, C
qED8–1 8 5,605,177/6023577 PZE-108005561/PZA00058.6 0.3 2.7       C
qED8–2 8 149,193,811/152752292 PZE-108092173/PZE-108096683    0.4 0.4 0.8    E4, C
qED9–1 9 4,010,398/4838919 PZE-109003441/SYN22281    0.5 0.002 1    C
qED9–2 9 9,501,951/16179673 PZE-109008839/PZE-109015923 0.5 7.6       E1, C
qED9–3 9 55,513,159/93381704 PZE-109037929/PZA03596.1    −0.4 −0.03 0.8 0.1 5.4 C
qED10 10 88,397,317/92787084 PZE-110047164/PZE-110049371       0.7 4.5 C
Total PVE (%)      28.6    23.6   18.7  
qCD1–1 1 16,371,704/16602399 PZE-101027182/PZE-101027807       0.2 6.1 C
qCD1–2 1 38,445,432/39742242 SYN25114/PZE-101055771    −0.4 −0.04 8.3    E2, E3, C
qCD1–3 1 43,974,129/47135598 SYN13385/SYN37775 −0.3 4.3       E1, E3, C
qCD2 2 7,623,080/7665252 PZE-102017304/PZE-102017443    0.3 −0.05 3.7    C
qCD4–1 4 75,230,995/75633216 PZE-104048874/PZE-104049163    0.4 0.1 6    E3, C
qCD4–2 4 99,402,352/84875360 PZE-104111457/PZE-104053258 0.4 6.8       E2, C
qCD4–3 4 210,243,373/236879938 PZE-104129635/PZE-104150421    −0.1 0.5 6    C
qCD6 6 60,149,277/70802055 PZE-106025164/PZE-106029942 −0.3 6       E3, C
qCD7 7 143,113,852/143294688 SYN35897/PZE-107088218    0.2 0.2 3.8    C
qCD8–1 8 114,826,665/133440733 SYN21795/PZE-108077809 0.3 5.2       E4, C
qCD8–2 8 130,213,045/149193811 PZE-108074750/PZE-108092173    0.3 0.3 4.1    C
qCD9 9 1,002,880/2145556 PZE-109000394/PZE-109001604 0.3 6.5       E3, C
qCD10 10 88,397,317/92787084 PZE-110047164/PZE-110049371       0.4 4.4 E4, C
Total PVE (%)      28.8    31.9   10.5  
qRN1–1 1 43,974,129/47135598 SYN13385/SYN37775 −0.2 4.9       E1, E2, E4 C
qRN1–2 1 290,306,827/295888639 SYN11155/PZE-101251367 −0.2 3.1 −0.2 − 0.1 1    E1, C
qRN2–1 2 7,623,080/7665252 PZE-102017304/PZE-102017443    0.2 −0.1 1.4    C
qRN2–2 2 153,320,302/163564013 SYN16390/SYN8399 −0.2 2.1 −0.3 0.1 1.7    C
qRN2–3 2 226,205,828/229917830 SYN8348/PZE-102186160    −0.3 0.1 1.8    E4, C
qRN3–1 3 1,978,736/3461364 PZE-103001968/SYN25628    −0.2 −0.1 1.1    C
qRN3–2 3 21,755,425/24739373 PZE-103029035/PZE-103032109    −0.3 0.1 1.7    E2, E3, E4, C
qRN3–3 3 26,447,512/29653189 PZE-103033919/PZE-103036266 −0.3 5.6       E2, E3, C
qRN3–4 3 210,358,171/211230808 SYN20833/PZE-103160158    0.2 0.1 1.2    E4, C
qRN3–5 3 211,968,759/213654405 PZE-103161091/PZE-103163529 0.3 6.7       E1, E2, E4, C
qRN5 5 7,996,427/17899738 PZA02029.19/PZE-105032498    0.3 −0.04 2.2    C
qRN7–1 7 775,637/1285778 PZA01426.1/SYN10723    0.1 0.2 1.2    E4, C
qRN7–2 7 171,743,914/172778289 PZE-107130514/PZE-107132828 −0.2 5.1 −0.2 0.003 0.9    E1, E2, E3, E4, C
qRN9–1 9 9,501,951/16179673 PZE-109008839/PZE-109015923 0.3 6.2       E1, E2, E4, C
qRN9–2 9 34,632,675/45578052 PZB00235.1/PZE-109035290    −0.4 −0.1 3.3    E2, E4, C
qRN9–3 9 97,255,443/98356545 PZE-109056596/PZE-109057210 −0.3 9.2       E1, E2, E3, E4, C
qRN10–1 10 74,412,528/71111717 PZE-110038658/SYN18227    1 0.1 24    E3, C
qRN10–2 10 37,810,598/82232426 PZE-110027837/PZE-110043216 0.2 2.4 0.4 0.1 3.4    E2, E3, C
qRN10–3 10 103,422,421/102323080 PZE-110054411/PZE-110053918       −0.1 6.6 E3, C
Total PVE (%)      45.2    44.9   6.6  
qKNPR1–1 1 9,434,924/11488064 SYN14143/PZE-101019726    −0.8 0.1 4.3    C
qKNPR1–2 1 217,114,855/220711263 PZE-101173330/SYN2411    −0.7 0.6 5.1    E3, C
qKNPR2–1 2 65,134,549/63665753 PZE-102080979/PZE-102080069    −0.3 1.3 6.3    E4, C
qKNPR2–2 2 177,239,688/178977489 PZE-102127480/PZE-102129070       1.1 4.4 E2, C
qKNPR3–1 3 211,968,759/213654405 PZE-103161091/PZE-103163529 0.9 8       E2, E4, C
qKNPR3–2 3 224,622,258/227274031 ZM012337–0431/PZE-103182712    0.5 1 5.1    C
qKNPR4–1 4 7,155,405/10656171 PZE-104010113/PZE-104012412    −0.6 0.6 3.3    C
qKNPR4–2 4 35,272,230/35542248 PZE-104029222/PZE-104029384       1 5.2 E4, C
qKNPR5–1 5 135,840,044/135189300 SYN32229/PZE-105093385 0.7 4.7       E4, C
qKNPR5–2 5 167,276,024/168260189 PZE-105110168/PZE-105111323       −0.1 7.5 C
qKNPR6–1 6 105,500,541/106069077 PZE-106055082/PZE-106055781 −0.6 3.2       C
qKNPR6–2 6 140,871,676/137826260 PZE-106083588/PZE-106080884    0.1 1.1 3.9 1.1 4.2 E3, E4, C
qKNPR7–1 7 140,421,815/141648137 PZE-107084740/PZE-107086184    −0.1 1 3.1    E3, C
qKNPR7–2 7 149,763,210/149725744 PZE-107094398/PZE-107094385 −0.7 4.6       C
qKNPR9 9 101,477,167/105064711 PZB01899.2/SYN37647       0.8 3.6 C
qKNPR10–1 10 58,452,435/82232426 PZE-110025994/PZE-110043216    0.9 0.4 6.1    E4, C
qKNPR10–2 10 92,787,084/96757754 PZE-110049371/PZE-110051403 0.8 5.5       C
Total PVE (%)      26    37.1   25  
qKWPE1–1 1 43,974,129/47135598 SYN13385/SYN37775    −1.3 3.6 0.4    C
qKWPE1–2 1 73,736,703/77488489 PZE-101084850/PZE-101087156    −1.3 3.9 0.4    C
qKWPE1–3 1 232,527,769/245035242 PZE-101187496/PZE-101196838 −1.9 6.6       E1, C
qKWPE1–4 1 263,740,719/285391084 PZE-101213558/SYN22772       5.3 0.8 C
qKWPE2–1 2 37,868,398/38140456 SYN28948/PZE-102059924    −0.4 5.7 0.8    E3, C
qKWPE2–2 2 43,372,951/47158891 PZE-102065424/PZA02450.1       −16.6 8 E3, C
qKWPE2–3 2 188,055,798/190159942 SYN19995/SYN5428       1.7 3.2 C
qKWPE2–4 2 192,581,253/192700757 PZE-102145606/PZE-102145703       1.2 5 C
qKWPE2–5 2 201,971,890/209300839 PZE-102154251/SYN7501    −3.3 1.7 0.5    C
qKWPE3–1 3 211,968,759/213654405 PZE-103161091/PZE-103163529 1.7 5.5       E1, E2, C
qKWPE3–2 3 222,552,568/224622258 SYN6986/ZM012337–0431       3.9 0.5 C
qKWPE4 4 166,876,428/169511859 PZE-104090796/PZE-104093153       2.5 0.4 C
qKWPE6–1 6 140,871,676/137826260 PZE-106083588/PZE-106080884    −0.4 4.9 0.6 4.7 0.7 E1, E3, E4, C
qKWPE6–2 6 142,423,964/152749874 PZE-105096701/PZE-105101729 1.4 3.7       C
qKWPE7–1 7 17,478,189/46213540 PZE-107019133/PZE-107033682    −1.8 5.8 0.8 5 0.8 E2, E4, C
qKWPE7–2 7 140,421,815/141648137 PZE-107084740/PZE-107086184       3.8 0.5 C
qKWPE7–3 7 144,000,432/144753122 PZE-107088998/PZE-107089819    −1.9 3.9 0.4    E3, C
qKWPE9 9 55,513,159/93380517 PZE-109037929/PZA03595.2    −26.2 1.8 34 1.5 18.3 E2, E4, C
qKWPE10–1 10 23,214,551/25558345 PZE-110019199/PZE-110020162       −21.3 13.4 C
qKWPE10–2 10 124,526,091/131889929 PZE-110068110/SYN17753    2.4 3.9 0.7    E4, C
qKWPE10–3 10 131,104,195/134219127 PZE-110074914/PZE-110079903 1.6 4.4       C
Total PVE (%)      20.1    38.8   51.6  
qRKP1–1 1 223,825,525/229541701 SYN31271/PZE-101184757 −0.01 4.7 −0.004 0.004 3.6    E1, E3, C
qRKP1–2 1 232,527,769/245035242 PZE-101187496/PZE-101196838       − 0.003 7.7 C
qRKP3–1 3 184,674,522/191932135 SYN23245/PZE-103136534 0.01 4.8     −0.003 5.7 E1, E2, E4, C
qRKP3–2 3 211,230,808/213654405 PZE-103160158/PZE-103163529 0.01 4.3     0.01 6.7 E2, E3, E4, C
qRKP3–3 3 227,274,031/227827542 PZE-103182712/PZE-103183391 0.01 3.6       C
qRKP4–1 4 25,639,678/26730656 PZE-104022764/PZE-104023674       0.014 4.1 C
qRKP4–2 4 41,851,034/56860597 PZE-104033489/PZE-104041535    −0.01 0.001 8.4    E2, E3, E4, C
qRKP4–3 4 78,343,158/82013799 PZE-104050391/PZE-104051877       0.001 10.4 E2, E4, C
qRKP6 6 141,080,410/161454721 PZE-106083873/PZE-106115356 −0.01 4.8       E4, C
qRKP7–1 7 39,125,424/46213540 PZE-107030398/PZE-107033682 −0.01 4.1       C
qRKP7–2 7 140,421,815/141648137 PZE-107084740/PZE-107086184 −0.02 6.8       E4, C
qRKP7–3 7 143,113,852/143294688 SYN35897/PZE-107088218       0.003 3.5 C
qRKP7–4 7 149,763,210/149725744 PZE-107094398/PZE-107094385    −0.01 0.002 4.6    E4, C
qRKP10–1 10 5,761,296/6537076 PZE-110007326/PZE-110008811 0.01 5.4       C
qRKP10–2 10 131,104,195/134219127 PZE-110074914/PZE-110079903    0.01 0.003 4.6 −0.002 4.7 C
Total PVE (%)      38.4    21.2   42.7 C
  1. aChr Chromosome
  2. bThe version 2 of the Maize B73 RefGen
  3. cRIL the RILs, IF2 the IF2 population, MPH the MPH data set derived from the RILs and IF2 population
  4. dA additive effect, Negative additive values indicate that the allele for increasing trait value is contributed by the parent 08–641, Positive additive values indicate that the allele for increasing trait value is contributed by another parent YE478
  5. ePVE phenotypic variance explained by QTL
  6. fD dominance effect
  7. gE1 2014Jinghong, E2 2015Jinghong, E3 2016Chongzhou, E4 2016Jinghong, C combined analysis across all environments