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Table 5 Alfalfa AGDD requirement to reach the flowering in the spring. This was estimated in Julian days, from the first day of the calendar year, based on two locations JPC and BVL. This shows that alfalfa flowers earlier in 2017 with mild winter temperature than in 2015 with more severe winter

From: QTL mapping of flowering time and biomass yield in tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

Year Environment Flowering Date TOF T-max T-min AGDD
2015 JPC 13th April 112 12.5 −7 641.1
2017 JPC 27th March 85 18.9 −2.5 587.6
2015 BVL 27th May 146 11.4 −12.6 876.1
2017 BVL 29th April 118 15.5 −8.8 729.6
  1. JPC and BVL refer to the J. Phil Campbell Sr. Research and Education Center (JPC) in Watkinsville and the Georgia Mountain Research and Education Center (BVL) in Blairsville
  2. T-max Maximum average temperature (°C) in two winter months (Jan. and Feb.), T-min Minimum average temperature (°C) in two winter months (Jan. and Feb.), AGDD Accumulated growing degree days from 1st January to the day of early flowering record, the AGDD was obtained by adding growing degree days (GDD) of the effective days