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Table 1 Description of studied traits at three locations (Islamabad: ISD, Sargodha: SGD and Bahawalpur: BWP) along with over all mean, mean squares, percent reduction due to late sown and heritability

From: Genome-wide association studies of seven agronomic traits under two sowing conditions in bread wheat

Trait Location Treatment Mean SE Min. Max. Overall Mean MS h2
DH ISD Normal 126 0.39 110 133 Normal 119 19.7*** 0.86
Late 88 0.18 84 93 Late 82 8.65ns 0.71
SGD Normal 123 0.24 118 130 LSD 0.5   
Late 81 0.09 78 82 Reduction% ISD SGD BWP
BWP Normal 108 0.31 97 113 Mean 30 34 28
Late 78 0.44 64 86 Min-Max 24–30 34–37 24–34
GFD ISD Normal 34 0.31 26 42 Normal 35 9.82ns 0.74
Late 27 0.35 18 38 Late 28 13.39ns 0.76
SGD Normal 37 0.2 31 42 LSD 0.43   
Late 33 0.17 29 38 Reduction% ISD SGD BWP
BWP Normal 35 0.32 24 45 Mean 22 9 34
Late 23 0.4 14 35 Min-Max 9–31 06–10 22–42
PH (cm) ISD Normal 93.2 0.56 75.7 109.3 Normal 87.9 47.83*** 0.83
Late 69.53 0.61 51 90.7 Late 65.7 93.68*** 0.88
SGD Normal 85.77 0.55 72 101.5 LSD 0.78   
Late 59.74 0.69 40 80 Reduction% ISD SGD BWP
BWP Normal 84.75 0.46 72 96 Mean 25 30 20
Late 67.83 0.69 48.67 88.67 Min-Max 17–33 21–44 8–32
SPP ISD Normal 8 0.14 5 16 Normal 9 2.79*** 0.82
Late 5 0.08 3 8 Late 5 2.03ns 0.78
SGD Normal 10 0.15 7 14 LSD 0.17   
Late 5 0.11 2 8 Reduction% ISD SGD BWP
BWP Normal 8 0.08 6 11 Mean 41 51 52
Late 4 0.15 1 8 Min-Max 40–50 43–71 27–83
GNS ISD Normal 53 0.81 24 74 Normal 59 152.8*** 0.86
Late 41 0.92 10 60 Late 41 100.8** 0.81
SGD Normal 59 1.01 30 85 LSD 1.04   
Late 41 0.7 24 60 Reduction% ISD SGD BWP
BWP Normal 64 0.84 40 87 Mean 23 31 34
Late 42 0.77 22 62 Min-Max 19–58 20–29 29–45
TKW (g) ISD Normal 42.26 0.52 26.07 54 Normal 40.6 46.78** 0.81
Late 33.2 0.62 14.87 48.31 Late 28.8 43.68*** 0.85
SGD Normal 41.99 0.5 19 51.87 LSD 0.64   
Late 27.77 0.41 17 44.36 Reduction% ISD SGD BWP
BWP Normal 37.65 0.6 22.32 54.55 Mean 21 34 32
Late 25.46 0.41 14.79 41.2 Min-Max 11–43 11–14 24–34
GY (Kg/plot) ISD Normal 0.16 0.01 0.01 0.34 Normal 0.14 0.0037ns 0.72
Late 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.17 Late 0.03 100.8** 0.81
SGD Normal 0.15 0.01 0.02 0.39 LSD 0.006   
Late 0.04 0.002 0.001 0.13 Reduction% ISD SGD BWP
BWP Normal 0.11 0.01 0.02 0.56 Mean 66 76 74
Late 0.03 0.002 0.002 0.13 Min-Max 17–49 68–95.6 77–98
  1. Days to heading: DH, grain filled duration: GFD, plant height: PH, spikes per plant: SPP, grain number per spike: GNS, thousand kernel weight: TKW and grain yield per plot: GY
  2. *p-value <0.05, **p-value < 0.01, ***p-value < 0.001