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Fig. 4 | BMC Plant Biology

Fig. 4

From: Comparative transcriptome analyses on terpenoids metabolism in field- and mountain-cultivated ginseng roots

Fig. 4

Biosyntheses of various terpenoids in the two types of ginseng root. Acronyms of the enzymes catalyzing corresponding biochemical reactions are written in green and red as indicated by the coloration scale presented to the upright corner of this figure, which were encoded by genes higher-expressed in field- and mountain-cultivated ginseng (FCG and MCG) roots, respectively. a Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis: ACT, acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase; HMGS, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase; HMGCR, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase; mvaK1, mevalonate kinase; mvaK2, phosphomevalonate kinase; mvaD, diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase; DXS, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase; DXR, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase; ispD, 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase; ispG, (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl-diphosphate synthase; ispH, 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate reductase; IDI, isopentenyl-diphosphate delta-isomerase; GGPS, geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase; FDPS, farnesyl diphosphate synthase; FNTA/B, alpha/beta-protein farnesyltransferase; PCYOX1, prenylcysteine oxidase; FLDH, NAD+ −dependent farnesol dehydrogenase; FOLK, farnesol kinase. b Diterpenoids biosynthesis: ent-KS, ent-kaurene synthase; KAO, ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase; GA20ox, gibberellin 20-oxidase; GA3ox1, gibberellin 3-beta-dioxygenase; GA2ox, gibberellin 2-oxidase. c Carotenoids biosynthesis: crtB, 15-cis-phytoene/all-trans-phytoene synthase; PD, 15-cis-phytoene desaturase; ZDS, zeta-carotene desaturase; crtISO, prolycopene isomerase; lcyB, lycopene beta-cyclase; LUT5, beta-ring hydroxylase; CCD7, 9-cis-beta-carotene 9′,10′-cleaving dioxygenase; CCD8, carlactone synthase; DWARF27, beta-carotene isomerase; ZEP, zeaxanthin epoxidase; VDE, violaxanthin de-epoxidase; CCS1, capsanthin/capsorubin synthase; NCED, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase; ABA2, xanthoxin dehydrogenase; AAO3, abscisic-aldehyde oxidase; ABAH, (+)-abscisic acid 8′-hydroxylase. d Triterpenoids biosynthesis: FDFT1, farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase; SQLE, squalene monooxygenase; CAS, cycloartenol synthase; DS, dammarenediol-II synthase; β-AS, beta-amyrin synthase; PDS, protopanaxadiol synthase; PTS, protopanaxatriol synthase; SMT1, sterol 24-C-methyltransferase; SMO1, 4,4-dimethyl-9beta,19-cyclopropylsterol-4alpha-methyl oxidase; CPI1, cycloeucalenol cycloisomerase; CYP51, sterol 14-demethylase; FK, delta14-sterol reductase; EBP, cholestenol Delta-isomerase; SMO2, 4-alpha-methyl-delta7-sterol-4alpha-methyl oxidase; ERG3, delta 7-sterol-5-desaturase; SMT2, 24-methylenesterol C-methyltransferase; DHCR7, 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase; DHCR24, delta24-sterol reductase; CYP710A, steroid 22-desaturase; CYP90B1, steroid 22-alpha-hydroxylase; CYP724B1, cytochrome P450 family 724 subfamily B polypeptide 1; CYP90A1, cytochrome P450 family 90 subfamily A polypeptide 1; CYP90D1, cytochrome P450 family 90 subfamily D1; CYP85A2, cytochrome P450 family 85 subfamily A2; CYP734A1, PHYB activation tagged suppressor 1. e Monoterpenoids biosynthesis: (−)-α-TS, (−)-alpha-terpineol synthase; (+)-ND, (+)-neomenthol dehydrogenase; menA, 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate octaprenyltransferase. f Sesquiterpenoids biosynthesis: GERD, (−)-germacrene D synthase; CYP71D55, premnaspirodiene oxygenase; TPS1, valencene/7-epi-alpha-selinene synthase. g terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis: menA, 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate octaprenyltransferase; ubiE, demethylmenaquinone methyltransferase; wrbA, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase; HPT, homogentisate phytyltransferase; VTE1, tocopherol cyclase; TOMT, tocopherol O-methyltransferase; HST, homogentisate solanesyltransferase; VTE3, 2-methyl-6-phytyl-1,4-hydroquinone methyltransferase

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