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Table 2 The detailed information of genes association with the wheat heading-flowering regulatory network

From: Gene regulatory network and abundant genetic variation play critical roles in heading stage of polyploidy wheat

Gene Accession number of NCBI Mutation region Mutation pattern Phenotype Ployploid wheat Reference
vrn-A1 AY747600 Promoter A 222-bp foldback element insertion in the promoter region Later heading T. aestivum cultivar Triple Dirk C [79]
Vrn-A1a Vrn-A1a.1 AY616458 Promoter A 222-bp foldback element insertion in the promoter region Early heading T. aestivum cultivar Triple Dirk C [17]
Vrn-A1a.3 Early heading
Vrn-A1a.2 KR782255 A 16-bp deletion and 4 single nucleotide deletions within the MITE insertion when compared to Vrn-A1a.1 Early heading Triticum compactum cultivar Tiroler Fruhe Binkel [76]
Vrn-A1b Vrn-A1b AY616461 A 20-bp deletion at − 157 bp in promoter region A 20-bp deletion at −157 bp Early heading T. aestivum cultivar Spring Marquis [17]
Vrn-A1b.1 KM047646 A-tract within the VRN-box: AAAAT Early heading Triticum turgidum strain PI 264954 [76]
Vrn-A1b.2 KM047641 A-tract within the VRN-box: AACCC Early heading Triticum dicoccoides strain PI 233288 [76]
Vrn-A1b.3 KM047647 A-tract within the VRN-box: AAACC Early heading Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccon strain UA0300214 [76]
Vrn-A1b.4 KM047651 A-tract within the VRN-box: AAAAC Early heading Triticum dicoccoides strain PI 466941 [76]
Vrn-A1b.5 KM047652 A-tract within the VRN-box: AAACA Early heading Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccon strain UA0300212 [76]
Vrn-A1b.6 KT692944 Takes along a “C- > G” transversion in the C-rich fragment than Vrn-A1b Early heading Triticum turgidum subsp. durum strain CItr 10,024 [76]
Vrn-A1c AY747599 Intron1 Intron 1 deletion in the A genome copy Early heading T. aestivum cultivar IL369 [79]
Vrn-A1d AY616462 Promoter A 32-bp deletion, which included the complete HDD region and part of the CArG box. Early heading Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccoides [17]
Vrn-A1e AY616463 Promoter A 54-bp deletion, which included the CArG box and HDD regions Early heading Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccum ST27 [17]
Vrn-A1f DQ146421 Promoter An 8-bp deletion in the region between −128 and − 120, and a 50-bp deletion in the region between −112 and − 62 Early heading Triticum monococcum strain PI503874 [29]
Vrn-A1h GQ451745 Promoter A 20-bp deletion near the CArG box Early heading Triticum monococcum subsp. aegilopoides [78]
Vrn-A1i KM016790 Promoter Nucleotide substitution in promoter region Weak effect on the vernalization response Triticum turgidum strain PI 208912 [76]
VRN-A1u GQ451737 Intron1 A 1.4-kb deletion in intron1 Later heading Triticum urartu isolate Tu54 [78]
vrn-B1 AY747604 Promoter   Later heading T. aestivum cultivar Triple Dirk C [79]
Vrn-B1a AY747603 Intron1 6850-bp deletion at + 836 bp Early heading T. aestivum cultivar Triple Dirk B [79]
Vrn-B1b FJ766015 Intron1 6850-bp deletion at + 836 bp and 37-bp deletion at + 7992 bp \ T. aestivum [80]
Vrn-B1c HQ593668 Intron1 The deletion of 0.8 kb coupled with the duplication of 0.4 kb in intron1 Early heading T. aestivum [81]
Vrn-B1ins HQ130482 Intron1 817 bp deletion from 798 to 1614 bp, and 432 bp (from 798 to 1614 bp upstream) duplicated Early heading T. aestivum cultivar Saratovskaya29 [82]
KR782252 Promoter A retrotransposon insertion in the promoter Early heading Triticum turgidum cultivar Zerdakia [76]
vrn-D1 AY747606 No. No. Later heading T. aestivum cultivar Triple Dirk C [79]
Vrn-D1a AY747597 Intron1 A 4235-bp deletion in intron1 (625–4859 bp) Later heading T. aestivum cultivar Triple Dirk E [79]
Vrn-D1b JQ406528 Intron1 Deletion in intron 1 identical to Vrn-D1a allele and a single nucleotide mutation C to A at − 161 bp in CArG box in promoter region Later heading T. aestivum [83]
Vrn-D1c KP721800 Promoter An 174-bp fragment was inserted into the 5′-UTR at − 601 bp (relative to ATG) of the Vrn-D1 gene Early maturity T. aestivum [85]
Vrn-D1s KF800714 Intron1 An 844-bp insertion which is a novel transposable DNA element in intron1   Triticum spelta strain PI 348700 [84]
vrn-B3 DQ890162 Promoter A 5295-bp repetitive element insertion that is absent in the CS allele associated with late flowering Later heading T. aestivum cultivar Chinese Spring [18]
Vrn-B3a DQ890165 Promoter A 5295-bp repetitive element inserted 591 bp upstream from the start codon Later heading T. aestivum cultivar CS(Hope7B) [18]
Vrn-B3b JN627519 Promoter An exact 890-bp fragment was inserted into the 5’ UTR (untranslated region) at − 429 bp Later heading T. aestivum [93]
Vrn-B3c JQ082311 Promoter A 20-bp deletions at −3543 bp and a 4-bp deletion at − 3591 bp compared with Vrn-B3a Later heading T. aestivum cultivar Ji874–109 [93]
  1. Note, No. Means there are no more information refer to