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Table 3 Phenotypic differences between DP and SP

From: Precocious genotypes and homozygous tendency generated by self-pollination in walnut

Trait DP SP1 SP2 SP3 SP4 SP5 SP6 SP7 SP8 SP9
Tree Age of tree (yr) ≈70 36 36 35 34 36 33 36 33 36
Diameter at breast height (cm) 53.5 10.1 13.8 11.2 14.2 19.4 24.3 22.4 17.8 9.3
Juvenile period (yr) 7 2 2 2 2 8 7 8 7 Never flower
Stem color Brown Taupe Taupe Taupe Taupe Taupe Taupe Gray Taupe Brown
Type of dichogamy Protandrous Protandrous Protandrous Protandrous Protogynous Protandrous Protogynous Protandrous Protandrous Protandrous
Bud Longitudinal section of mixed bud Triangular Triangular Triangular Triangular Triangular Triangular Circular Triangular Triangular Triangular
Leaf Number of leaflets 7~13 5~9 5~9 5~9 5~9 7~13 7~11 7~13 7~11 9~13
Leaflet shape Lanceolate Elliptic Elliptic Elliptic Oval Elliptic Oval Lanceolate Lanceolate Elliptic
Terminal leaflet Small Large Large Large Large Degradation Large Degradation Degradation Medium
Rachis color Green Green Green Green Green Red Red Red Red Green
Nut Shape in longitudinal section through suture Oblate Circular Circular Oblate Ovate Circular Oblate Oblate Circular
Shape of apical tip Pointed Bulge Pointed Emarginate Bulge Pointed Bulge Bulge Pointed
Shape of apex perpendicular to suture Truncate Rounded Rounded Emarginate Truncate Rounded Truncate Truncate Truncate
Shape of base perpendicular to suture Rounded Rounded Rounded Truncate Rounded Rounded Truncate Rounded Rounded
Nut vertical diameter (mm) 38.70 ± 0.99 35.09 ± 1.05 37.11 ± 1.24 32.29 ± 1.03 34.58 ± 0.88 28.21 ± 1.12 31.78 ± 1.21 31.79 ± 1.14 33.18 ± 1.44
Nut transverse diameter (mm) 38.11 ± 0.89 32.36 ± 1.43 35.40 ± 1.10 36.74 ± 1.05 29.52 ± 0.88 30.80 ± 1.16 37.26 ± 1.20 36.46 ± 1.19 31.81 ± 1.24
Nut side diameter (mm) 31.03 ± 0.66 27.48 ± 1.15 31.17 ± 1.01 28.71 ± 0.91 32.36 ± 0.83 26.79 ± 1.30 32.19 ± 1.21 28.84 ± 1.11 26.73 ± 1.21
Dividing membranes traits Paper-like Membranous Membranous Leathery Paper-like Membranous Membranous Bony Bony
Single nut weight (g) 12.54 ± 0.69 9.08 ± 0.56 11.07 ± 0.75 10.85 ± 1.04 10.86 ± 1.68 8.11 ± 0.85 12.08 ± 1.06 18.32 ± 1.01 13.32 ± 0.86
Shell thickness (mm) 0.96 ± 0.02 0.95 ± 0.03 0.97 ± 0.03 1.17 ± 0.02 1.08 ± 0.02 1.17 ± 0.01 0.98 ± 0.02 1.87 ± 0.05 3.27 ± 0.22
Kernel percentage (%) 55.14 ± 0.99 53.40 ± 0.68 51.12 ± 0.86 48.23 ± 0.96 51.24 ± 0.40 50.57 ± 0.59 58.14 ± 0.85 19.10 ± 1.51 20.07 ± 2.19
  1. SP1–SP9 represented nine self-pollinated plants sown during the 1980–1983 period. Among them, SP9 did not flower until 2017. DP and SP exhibited some differences in stem color, number and shape of leaflets, and nut-shape traits. Ten nuts were investigated for nut traits because of the low fruits set. Tree height data are not provided because SP7 and SP9 were truncated in 2010