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Table 1 Constitutive and herbivore-induced VOCs released from single individuals of the focal plant species Trifolium pratense growing in pot communities of differing species compositions. T. pratense plants were either grown in monoculture (1 sp), in two species mixtures with Geranium pratense (TG) or Dactylis glomerata (TD), or in three species mixtures with D. glomerata and G. pratense (3 spp). T. pratense individuals in half of the experimental pot communities were infested with Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars (herbivory treatment). Values represent mean VOC emissions (ng g− 1 h− 1) ± SEM from single T. pratense individuals

From: Plant volatile emission depends on the species composition of the neighboring plant community

Compounds Control Herbivory
1 sp. 2 spp. 3 spp. TG TD 1 sp. 2 spp. 3 spp. TG TD
Monoterpenes*d
 (E)-β-ocimene* 0.5 ± 0.5 0.9 ± 0.6 1.7 ± 1.0 1.6 ± 1.1 26.7 ± 5.4 54.1 ± 5.4 59.8 ± 19.6 41.5 ± 11.0 69.2 ± 11.1
 (Z)-β-ocimene* 2.8 ± 1.3 10.5 ± 2.3 9.4 ± 3.9 5.7 ± 1.9 16.3 ± 2.7
Sesquiterepenes*d
 (E)-β-caryophyllene* 2.3 ± 1.5 5.3 ± 2.2 6.5 ± 4.2 1.6 ± 1.1 9.7 ± 4.1
Homoterpene*
 DMNT* 14.3 ± 6.0 13.1 ± 5.0 15.1 ± 8.0 4.6 ± 2.2 23.2 ± 9.0
GLVsd
 (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate 4.2 ± 2.8 4.5 ± 2.4 5.7 ± 5.7 8.2 ± 3.7 5.9 ± 5.9 44.8 ± 19.7 21.0 ± 10.1 16.3 ± 14.8 78.9 ± 35.6
Others
 1-Octene-3-ol* 3.2 ± 1.7 2.4 ± 2.4 2.4 ± 2.4 4.1 ± 2.8
 Benzyl alcohol 1.2 ± 1.2 7.4 ± 3.1 4.2 ± 1.9 8.7 ± 6.0 6.4 ± 3.3 2.1 ± 1.3 1.8 ± 1.1 3.6 ± 2.3 1.4 ± 0.9 2.2 ± 2.2
 Unknown 2.3 ± 1.5 4.1 ± 2.1 4.8 ± 3.1 6.1 ± 3.8 2.4 ± 2.4 3.9 ± 2.6 3.6 ± 1.8 5.2 ± 3.2 3.6 ± 2.4 3.6 ± 3.0
 Nonanal 5.5 ± 2.0 13.2 ± 6.1 11.4 ± 4.6 11.7 ± 7.9 14.4 ± 9.6 13.3 ± 6.4 13.2 ± 4.6 15.6 ± 7.1 11.1 ± 4.7 15.7 ± 8.9
Total*d 13.7 ± 4.2 30.1 ± 7.9 27.8 ± 2.6 26.5 ± 13.3 33.2 ± 10.4 71.3 ± 15.2 149.5 ± 30.3 138.4 ± 41.8 88.4 ± 17.5 223.0 ± 46.2
  1. All data was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) following transformation of data to meet statistical assumptions. An asterisk (*) designates compounds which increased in their emission with S littoralis herbivory (p < 005) and the superscript letter (d) designates compounds that increased in the presence of the grass species D. glomerata, n = 5