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Table 1 Retention time (Rt), wavelengths of maximum absorption in the visible region (λmax), mass spectral data, tentative identification of phenolic compounds and quantification (μgg−1 FW) in Amaranthus tricolor leaves

From: Drought stress enhances nutritional and bioactive compounds, phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity of Amaranthus leafy vegetable

Phenolic compound Rt (min) λmax (nm) Molecular ion
[M - H] (m/z)
Identity MS2 (m/z) Control (100% FC) LDS (90% FC) MDS (60% FC) SDS (30% FC)
Hydroxybenzoicacid
 Gallic acid 9.1 254 169 3,4-5Trihydroxybenzoicacid 169.2 7.23 ± 0.03d 8.64 ± 0.04c 10.25 ± 0.05b 12.25 ± 0.06a
 Vanilic acid 30.6 254 167 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoicacid 167.2 9.75 ± 0.07d 10.12 ± 0.05c 12.83 ± 0.04b 15.48 ± 0.08a
 Syringic acid 34.8 254 197 4-Hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoicacid 197.1 1.17 ± 0.02c 1.22 ± 0.01c 1.65 ± 0.02b 1.83 ± 0.01a
p-hydroxybenzoic acid 31.5 254 137 4-hydroxybenzoic acid 137.2 2.64 ± 0.03d 2.84 ± 0.02c 3.26 ± 0.02b 4.07 ± 0.03a
 Salicylic acid 48.2 254 137 2-Hydroxybenzoic acid 137.2 17.45 ± 0.21d 18.96 ± 0.12c 25.68 ± 0.14b 28.96 ± 0.16a
 Ellagic acid 52.5 254 301 (2,3,7,8-tetrahydroxy-chromeno
[5,4,3-cde]chromene-5,10-dione
301.1 0.98 ± 0.01d 1.04 ± 0.02c 2.15 ± 0.02b 2.08 ± 0.03a
Total benzoic acids       39.22 42.81 55.81 64.66
Hydroxycinnamic acid
 Caffeic acid 32.0 280 179 3,4-Dihydroxy-trans-cinnamate 179.1 1.56 ± 0.02d 1.68 ± 0.01c 1.96 ± 0.02b 2.68 ± 0.03a
 Chlorogenic acid 31.1 280 353 3-(3,4-Dihydroxycinnamoyl) quinic acid 353.2 9.86 ± 0.18d 10.26 ± 0.24c 12.54 ± 0.26b 13.86 ± 0.20a
p-coumaric acid 42.0 280 163 4-hydroxycinnamicacid 163.1 1.04 ± 0.02d 1.12 ± 0.01c 2.14 ± 0.02b 2.24 ± 0.02a
 Ferulic acid 47.9 280 193 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamicacid 193.2 1.02 ± 0.01c 1.08 ± 0.02c 1.55 ± 0.01b 2.15 ± 0.03a
m-coumaric acid 49.6 280 163 3-hydroxycinnamicacid 163.3 3.13 ± 0.03d 3.54 ± 0.02c 6.55 ± 0.04b 7.96 ± 0.05a
 Sinapic acid 49.0 280 223 4-Hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamicacid 223.2 0.26 ± 0.01d 0.34 ± 0.01c 0.38 ± 0.01b 0.42 ± 0.01a
Trans-cinnamic acid 67.3 280 147 3-Phenylacrylic acid 147.1 5.03 ± 0.02d 5.26 ± 0.01c 5.54 ± 0.01b 5.65 ± 0.02a
Total cinnamic acids       21.89 23.27 31.66 34.96
Flavonoids
 Iso-quercetin 54.3 360 463 Quercetin-3-glucoside 463.3 3.55 ± 0.02c 3.58 ± 0.03c 6.46 ± 0.02b 7.82 ± 0.04a
 Hyperoside 53.3 360 463 Quercetin-3-galactoside 463.5 1.18 ± 0.01c 1.22 ± 0.02c 1.58 ± 0.01b 2.05 ± 0.02a
 Rutin 53.0 360 609 Quercetin-3-rutinoside 609.4 7.89 ± 0.06c 7.96 ± 0.05c 9.58 ± 0.06b 11.24 ± 0.04a
Total flavonoids       57.11 62.08 82.47 95.62
Total phenolic acids       16.59 18.76 21.62 25.12
Total phenolic index       73.70 78.84 104.09 120.74
  1. Different letters in a row are differed significantly by Duncan Multiple Range Test (P < 0.01); (n = 3)