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Fig. 3 | BMC Plant Biology

Fig. 3

From: Modulation of auxin and cytokinin responses by early steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway

Fig. 3

The ref3 mutants are cytokinin hypersensitive. a Increased sensitivity of the strong ref3–1 mutant (in Ler background) in the cytokinin-induced root growth inhibition assay. Five-day-old seedlings were transferred to control or BA plates and root lengths were measured after 6 days of growth. Data are presented as absolute root length ± SD (n ≥ 12). The significance of the difference between the lengths of Ler and ref3–1 roots for each treatment is noted (** P < 0.01, ****, P < 0.0001; two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni’s multiple comparisons test). b t-CA-dependent restoration of wild-type cytokinin sensitivity of 35S::KMD1/KFB20 (OE#1) in root growth assays. Five-day-old seedlings were transferred from MS/2 plates to plates with the denoted doses of BA or BA and t-CA. The length of the primary roots was measured after 6 days of growth. Data are presented as absolute root length ± SD (n ≥ 12). The significance of the difference between the root lengths measured for Col-0 and OE#1 plants for each treatment is noted in black (****, P < 0.0001) and the significance of the difference between BA and combined BA and t-CA treatments of OE#1 plants is highlighted in red (two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni’s multiple comparisons test). ****, P < 0.0001 (one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni’s multiple comparisons test). c Introduction of 35S::ARR5 and of 35S::KMD1/KFB20 transgenes in ref3–1 suppresses the enhanced cytokinin growth response of ref3–1. Plants were grown on vertical plates with or without BA and photographed after 6 days of growth. Arrowheads mark the root tips. d Overexpression of KMD1/KFB20 and not of ARR5 restores the increased shoot branching phenotype of ref3–1. Plants were grown on soil for 38 days in continuous light. Arrows are pointing to the lateral shoots. e Overexpression of KMD1/KFB20 restores the lateral root phenotype in ref3–1. Plants were grown on vertical plates for 14 days. Two independent 35S::KMD1/KFB20 transformed ref3–1 lines are shown (OE#1 and OE#2). Data are presented as mean ± SD (n ≥ 10). The significance of the difference between the wild type and other lines is presented (**, P < 0.01; one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post-test).

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