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Table 2 Cost of sexual reproduction of C. stenophylla in the four climatic aridity zones (mean ± SE)

From: What drives the shift between sexual and clonal reproduction of Caragana stenophylla along a climatic aridity gradient?

  Semi-arid zone Arid zone Very arid zone Intensively arid zone GLMM test results
Flowering efficiency (seeds/flower) 0.846 ± 0.034 0.551 ± 0.048 0.363 ± 0.026 0.021 ± 0.001 F3,12 = 50.07, P < 0.01
Cost of seed production (mg biomass/seed) 36.12 ± 0.87 48.05 ± 3.22 55.64 ± 2.37 494.35 ± 16.13 F3,12 = 312.83, P < 0.01
Sapling establishment rate (sapling /seed) × 10-2 0.681 ± 0.076 0.292 ± 0.054 0.181 ± 0.046 0.097 ± 0.035 F3,284 = 3.93, P < 0.01
CSR (g biomass/sapling) 5.35 ± 0.33 16.48 ± 0.86 31.06 ± 1.27 546.54 ± 89.09 F3,12 = 13.67, P < 0.01
  1. CSR cost of sexual reproduction