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Table 2 Characterization of the selected transcription factors and the TFBSs with unknown transcription factors that were identified in the promoter regions of Ppd-B1

From: Features of Ppd-B1 expression regulation and their impact on the flowering time of wheat near-isogenic lines

Family Transcription factors/TFBSs with unknown TF Description
AP2 AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) ANT initiates floral organ development [87]. It was shown to play a critical role in regulating the ovule and female gametophyte development [88].
C2H2 RESPONSIVE TO HIGH LIGHT 41 (Zat2) Zat12 was originally isolated as a light stress-response cDNA [89]; then, it was suggested to be able to regulate transcripts involved in the response to high-light, cold and oxidative stress [90].
MADS box/MIKC AGL19 AGL19 controls (promotes) flowering downstream of a cold-perception pathway and acts independently of FT and SOC1 [42].
MADS box/MIKC FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) FLC acts as an inhibitor of flowering [45].
MADS box/MIKC MAF2 (AGL31) MAF2 (AGL31), a paralog of FLC, is another flowering repressor that acts in non-inductive photoperiods [46, 47].
MADS box/MIKC AGL69 (MAF5) MAF5 is normally repressed. Overexpression of MAF5 under a non-inductive day length causes late-flowering [48].
MADS box/MIKC AGL68 (MAF4) MAF4 represses the transition to flowering [49, 50].
MADS box/MIKC FLM (AGL27, MAF1) FLM acts as a flowering inhibitor [51].
MADS box/MIKC AGL6 AGL6 was suggested to be able to act as a flowering repressor or activator, depending on the context [43].
MADS box/MIKC AGL14 (XAANTAL2, XAL2) XAL2 is essential for flowering induction. XAL2 promotes flowering in response to different signals and is important for the maintenance and differentiating of flowering meristems [44].
MADS box/MIKC AGAMOUS-like 15 (AGL15) AGL15 and AGL18 are floral transition repressors. The agl15 agl18 mutants were characterized by a partial suppression of the photoperiod pathway [52].
MADS box/MIKC AGAMOUS-like 18 (AGL18)
Lyase Aromatic Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase (PAL1) PAL1 is a light response element. These motifs are conserved at similar positions in several elicitor or light-responsive genes from different species [91].
RBCSGBOXPS RBCSGBOXPS binding site, identified in Parsley, is involved in light responsiveness [92].
REBETALGLHCB21 REBETALGLHCB21, first found in the Lemna dibba Lhcb genes, is necessary for phytochrome regulation. These elements are likely to function by repressing the promoter activity in the dark [93].
SORLIP5AT SORLIP5AT are PhyA-induced motifs that are overrepresented in light-induced genes. These elements, which predominate in the early responsive promoters, are more likely to have the fewest steps in the signal transduction cascade to gene expression [66].
MNF1ZMPPC1 MNF1ZMPPC1 is involved in the light-dependent transcriptional control of gene expression [94].