Linkage and association mapping of OXY and validation by transformation. a and c Diagram of linkage mapping and GWAS results for the level of Apigenin C-pentosyl-O-coumaroylhexoside in maize kernel. LOD values are shown as a function of their genetic positions. And the peak SNP is located within OXY (GRMZM5G843555). b The bar plot showing the mRNA level of OXY in wild type (WT) and over-expression lines (T1) (the individual number is 6, 10, 7, 8 for WT, L31, L35, L36 and L37, respectively, 3 technical replicates for each line individual). d Plot of correlation between the content of different flavonoids and the normalized expression level of gene OXY in association panel.
e-h The bar plot for the relative contents (fold change relative to the mean level of each flavonoid) of naringenin, chrysoeriol, vitexin and tricin between the WT and OXY over-expression lines (n = 6, 10, 10, 10 respectively). * and ** represent the significant level of P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively