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Table 3 Comparison of the innate immune responses and signaling components in Arabidopsis that are induced or utilized by MAMPs, NAMPs, and DAMPs

From: DAMPs, MAMPs, and NAMPs in plant innate immunity

Inducers Innate immune responses Signaling components
Ca2+ influx Callose deposition MPK3/MPK6 activation ROS production Defense gene expression BAK1/BKK1
NAMPs n.d. n.d. b c
 Systemin n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
 Hydroxyproline-rich systemin n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
 Plant elicitor peptides (Peps)
 Oligogalacturonides (OGs)
 Extracellular ATP (eATP) n.d. n.d.
AtHMGB3 d n.d. n.d.
  1. √ = yes; n.d. = not determined
  2. a Note most/many, but not all, MAMPs have been shown to utilize the BAK1/BKK1 signaling pathway and induce these innate immune responses
  3. b Unpublished data – S. Hind, G.B. Martin, P. Manosalva, F.C. Schroeder, D.F. Klessig
  4. c Unpublished data – M. Manohar, F.C. Schroeder, D.F. Klessig
  5. d Arabidopsis thaliana High Mobility Group Box 3 protein