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Table 1 Functions of important transcription factors and proteins

From: Hydrogen cyanamide breaks grapevine bud dormancy in the summer through transient activation of gene expression and accumulation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species

TFs or proteins Function References
1. bHLH bHLHs have a range of different roles in plant cell and tissue development as well as plant metabolism. [68]
2. WRKY Regulators involved in various develop006Dental and physiological process, especially in coping with diverse biotic (e.g. wounding, salicylic acid, cold, and salinity) and abiotic (e.g. methyl jasmonate (MeJA) stresses. [66, 99]
3. ERF Plays a crucial role in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions in plant. It’s also involved in fruit ripening and stress processes. [67]
4. NAM-B1 Acts in tissue specific manner to regulate monocarpic senescence and grain filling, and it’s related to carbohydrate metabolism in stems and the grain, and associated with the grain protein content in Fennoscandian wheat. [69, 70]
5. Protein kinase Protein kinases are universal signal transduction modules in eukaryotes, including yeasts, animals and plants. [73]
6. Peroxidase Peroxidases as key players during the whole life cycle of a plant, and particularly in cell wall modifications, and in roles that can be antagonistic depending on the developmental stage. [74]
7. Amine oxidase Cell wall maturation and lignification during development as well as with wound-healing and cell wall reinforcement during pathogen invasion. [26]
8. NADPH oxidase A plasma membrane NADPH oxidase produces ROS in planta or in elicited cells during incompatible interaction [100]
9. PR proteins The class 1 pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are thought to be involved in plant defense responses against infection by pathogens, such as fungi or viruses. [75, 76]
10. Expansin Expansins are involved in enhancing growth by mediating cell wall loosening. [77, 98]
11. Extensin Extensins are involved in defense and in the control of extension growth by differential expressing under stress and non-stress conditions. Extensin genes are developmentally regulated and induced by wounding, methyl jasmonate, abscisic and salicylic acid. [7880]
1. NAC NAC has a variety of important functions in plant development, and also in abiotic stress responses. [101]
2. FUS3 A positive regulator of seed responses to ABA and mediates osmotic stress responses during seed development. [81, 102]
3. MYB Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the grape via expression of the UFGT gene (UDP glucose: flavonoid -3-O-glucosyltransferase). [85, 103]
4. ABI5 Insensitive to ABA in seed germination, with an earlier flowering phenotype. [82]
5. GATA-like GATA DNA motifs have been implicated in light-dependent and nitrate-dependent control of transcription. [86]
6. ATHB ATHB10 regulates root hair development, ATHB8 promotes vascular cell differentiation and positively modulates the activity of procambial and cambial cells to differentiate, ATHB2 and ATHB4 genes are strongly induced by far-red-rich light. [83, 84, 104]
7. Chaperone dnaJ Regulation of the heat shock response by serving as an important pathway for the folding of newly synthesized polypeptides. [87, 88]
8. Ubiquitin ligase Ubiquitin ligase is an important part of cellular regulation in Arabidopsis, suggesting a major role for protein degradation in control of plant life. [89, 105]