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Table 2 Carotenoid composition and content in developing hexaploid wheat (breeding line 1041) grain sections

From: Distinct expression and function of carotenoid metabolic genes and homoeologs in developing wheat grains

μg carotenoid pigment/g fresh weight of tissue β,ε/β,β
  Lutein β-carotene Zeaxanthin Neoxanthin Violaxanthin Antheraxanthin Total
Embryo 3 2.4 ± 0.33a 0.46 ± 0.05a 1.03 ± 0.06a 0.39 ± 0.02a 2.53 ± 0.23a 2.32 ± 0.03a 9.13 ± 0.69a 0.36 ± 0.03a
Embryo 4 2.07 ± 0.23a 0.37 ± 0.04a 1.35 ± 0.05a 0.34 ± 0.04a 2.42 ± 0.44a 3.01 ± 0.04b 9.55 ± 0.74a 0.28 ± 0.01b
Embryo 5 1.83 ± 0.54a 0.37 ± 0.05a ND 0.12 ± 0.03b 1.84 ± 0.39a 2.03 ± 0.27a 6.19 ± 1.16b 0.41 ± 0.06a
Endosperm 3 0.92 ± 0.1b ND ND ND 0.9 ± 0.13b ND 1.81 ± 0.23c 1.03 ± 0.04c
Endosperm 4 0.68 ± 0.02c ND ND ND 0.45 ± 0.01c ND 1.13 ± 0.01d 1.49 ± 0.07d
Endosperm 5 0.5 ± 0.06d ND ND ND 0.17 ± 0.01d ND 0.67 ± 0.07e 2.96 ± 0.3e
Pericarp 3 22.55 ± 3.22e 14.34 ± 2.06b ND 4.97 ± 0.84b 11.27 ± 1.62e ND 53.13 ± 7.74f 0.74 ± 0.01f
Pericarp 4 18.07 ± 1.81e 10.18 ± 1.01c ND 3.69 ± 0.35b 8.84 ± 0.82f ND 40.79 ± 3.99g 0.8 ± 0.01g
Pericarp 5 8.94 ± 1.67f 4.24 ± 0.58d ND 1.15 ± 0.43c 3.95 ± 0.4g ND 18.28 ± 3.07h 0.95 ± 0.03c
  1. Data presented are mean ± SD of three biological replicates. Different letters indicate significantly (P < 0.05) different carotenoid content or β,ε/β,β ratios in each column. β,ε/β,β, ratio between β,ε- and β,β-branch carotenoids. ND not detectable