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Table 1 Carotenoid composition and content in developing tetraploid wheat (var. Kronos) grain sections

From: Distinct expression and function of carotenoid metabolic genes and homoeologs in developing wheat grains

μg carotenoid pigment/g fresh weight of tissue β,ε/β,β
  Lutein β-carotene Zeaxanthin Neoxanthin Violaxanthin Antheraxanthin Total
Embryo 3 3.75 ± 0.15a 0.36 ± 0.05a 0.28 ± 0.04a 0.42 ± 0.04a 3.06 ± 0.14a 2.05 ± 0.17a 9.93 ± 0.2a 0.61 ± 0.04a
Embryo 4 3.52 ± 0.12a 0.39 ± 0.06a 0.23 ± 0.05a 0.38 ± 0.08a 2.87 ± 0.22ab 1.85 ± 0.08a 9.24 ± 0.56a 0.62 ± 0.04a
Embryo 5 2.46 ± 0.33b 0.39 ± 0.02a ND 0.34 ± 0.02a 2.55 ± 0.27b 1.83 ± 0.02a 7.33 ± 0.97b 0.51 ± 0.03b
Endosperm 3 4.65 ± 0.38c ND ND ND 1.51 ± 0.08c ND 6.16 ± 0.4c 3.09 ± 0.29c
Endosperm 4 4.99 ± 0.64c ND ND ND 1.28 ± 0.24c ND 6.27 ± 0.88bc 3.92 ± 0.21c
Endosperm 5 3.75 ± 0.3a ND ND ND 0.48 ± 0.07d ND 4.23 ± 0.25d 8.02 ± 1.57d
Pericarp 3 18.92 ± 2.62d 8.98 ± 1.44b ND 3.72 ± 0.64b 7.65 ± 1.02e ND 39.27 ± 5.69e 0.93 ± 0.01e
Pericarp 4 15.55 ± 1.43de 7.78 ± 0.5b ND 2.94 ± 0.3b 6.24 ± 0.66ef ND 32.5 ± 2.43e 0.92 ± 0.04e
Pericarp 5 12.09 ± 1.73e 5.01 ± 0.42c ND 2.02 ± 0.15c 4.81 ± 0.63f ND 23.93 ± 2.93f 1.02 ± 0.04f
  1. Data presented are mean ± SD of three biological replicates. Different letters indicate significantly (P < 0.05) different carotenoid content or β,ε/β,β ratios in each column. β,ε/β,β, ratio between β,ε- and β,β-branch carotenoids. ND not detectable