Confocal images. Confocal imagery of later-stage gall tissues from the outside to the inside of a larval chamber (a ~ d) and mature leaves (e). The integrated optical density (IOD) of galls and gall-free and galled leaves (f) of the host Litsea acuminata. Data are the averages of thirty samples. Pink fluorescence shows the locations of chloroplasts. Error bars show SD. Scale bars: 100 μm.