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Table 1 A comparison of lace plant cell death morphologies

From: A comparison of induced and developmental cell death morphologies in lace plant (Aponogeton madagascariensis) leaves

Morphological characteristics Developmental Environmentally induced cell death
Leaf perforation Heat NaCl Acid (HCl) Base (NaOH)
55°C 400 mM 2 M 3 mM 12 M 30 mM 1 M
Anthocyanin disappearance + + + + + - + +
Perinuclear chloroplast formation + - - - - - - -
Vesicle formation + + + + + - + -
Vacuolar swelling + + + + + - + +
Nuclear condensation + + + + + + - -
Cessation of cytoplasmic streaming + + + + + + + +
Tonoplast collapse + + + + + + + +
PM retraction at death + + - + - + - -
Mean total time for death (n ≥ 3; time ± st. dev.) ~48 h 5.57 ± 0.21 h 5.32 ± 0.63 h 4.25 ± 0.38 h 4.02 ± 1.2 h 3.48 ± 1.67 min 33.72 ± 5.44 min 49 ± 5.3 s
  1. Morphologies of induced cell death (as observed in additional files) compared to developmental PCD during perforation formation (as delineated by Wertman et al. [22]).
  2. Note: Time for death in the environmentally induced categories spans from the moment of treatment application until collapse of the tonoplast and PM retraction when possible.