Effects of BDX overexpression on BDX transcript level, PME activity, and germination of matrix-primed seeds. A) Detection of BDX transcripts in dry seeds from wt plants and two independent OEBDX lines. ACT7 expression was used as an internal control. B) PME activities in meristem and leaves of A. thaliana plants (18 days after sowing) and seedlings (5 days post-germination). C) Cumulative testa rupture curve. D) Cumulative endosperm rupture curve. Germination assays were performed in triplicate at 20°C. All experiments were performed at least three times for each line, with different seed lots. Values shown are mean ± standard error; different letters indicate significant differences among lines.