Expression patterns of carotenoid-related genes in ripening RF ( L. barbarum ; gray bars) and BF ( L. ruthenicum ; black bars). The expression of Actin1 was used to normalize the mRNA levels for each sample. Three replicates were performed for each sample. LF, leaf samples; the fruit developmental stages (S1-S4) shown are identical to those depicted in Figure 1. DXS, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate-synthase; PSY, phytoene synthase; PDS, phytoene desaturase; Z-ISO, 15-cis-β-carotene isomerase; ZDS, β-carotene desaturase; CRTISO, carotene isomerase; LCY-B, lycopene β-cyclase; CYC-B, chromoplast-specific lycopene β-cyclase; CRTR-B, non-heme di-iron carotenoid ε-ring hydroxylase; CYP97A29, P450 carotenoid ε-ring hydroxylase; CYP97C11, P450 carotenoid ε-ring hydroxylase; NCED, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase; CCD, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase; CHRC, Chromoplast-specific carotenoid-associated protein; Or, orange; HSP21, heat shock protein 21; ZEP, zeaxanthin epoxidase; VDE, violaxanthin de-epoxidase.