Expression levels of PR genes and PME1 gene. The mRNA level of β-1,3-glucanases, chitinase and pectin methylesterase 1 genes in flax treated with OLIGOs (B1, B2, B3 and B4) at 24 h (light grey bars) and 48 h (dark grey bars) after exposure to OLIGOs in comparison with control, non-treated flax and in EMO-βGlu flax (EB) (black bars) in comparison with control flax was obtained from the real-time RT-PCR analysis. Actin was used as a reference gene and the transcript levels were normalized to those of the control plant (C = 1; not presented in the figure). Data represent the mean ± standard deviations from three independent experiments. The significance of the differences between the means was determined using Student’s t test (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01). RQ – relative quantity.