S. exigua larvae perform better on OPR3-RNAi plants than on wild type. The experiment involved 246 and 175 four-day-old larvae on wild-type and OPR3-RNAi plants, respectively. (A) Percent survival of S. exigua larvae on wild type (WT1, UC82B, blue) and 3 independent OPR3-RNAi lines (J55, J18, A52; green). (B) Larval development on wild-type (blue) and OPR3-RNAi (green) host plants. Larval mass is given in mg as the mean +/- SD. Asterisks indicate significant differences (Wilcoxon signed rank test: *** P < 0.001). (C) S. exigua larvae at the end of the experiment, prior to pupation (scale bar = 1 cm). (D) One representative of wild-type and OPR3-RNAi host plants at the end of the experiment.