Effect of ascorbate on resistance to M. oryzae , C. miyabeanus and R. solani in pyocyanin-amended hydroponically-grown rice plants. Purified pyocyanin (100 nM) and/or ascorbate (50 μM) were added to the half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution 4 days prior to challenge inoculation. For details on M. oryzae, C. miyabeanus and R. solani bioassays, see legend to Fig 1. The values presented are from representative experiments that were repeated three times with similar results. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences with the non-treated control (Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney, α = 0.05, n = 24).