GUS detection of hairy root and regenerated transgenic plants. ×10 micrograph showing GUS staining of hairy root. Left panel, transgenic hairy root; right panel, negative control (A). PCR-amplification of GUS in regenerated plants (B). M, 1 kb DNA marker; 1, plasmid DNA; 2, negative control; 3–7, transgenic regenerated plants. ×20 micrograph showing GUS staining of leaf from a regenerated plant. Left panel, transgenic leaf; right panel, negative control (C). GUS staining of a regenerated transgenic plant (left) and a negative control (right) (D). Southern blot analysis of regenerated plants using a 750-bp GUS fragment as a probe (E). P, Hind III-digested pGFPGUSPlus plasmid DNA; 1, negative control plant; 2–7, randomly selected transgenic regenerated plants. All negative controls were hairy roots or regenerated plants obtained through transformation mediated by A. rhizogenes harbouring no binary vector.