Hypothetical model of WRKY network in mediating canola responses to S. sclerotiorum and phytohormones. JA/ET-responsive, but not SA-responsive genes were observed in the necrotrophic pathogen S. sclerotiorum-canola interaction [2, 5], and these induced BnWRKY genes, such as BnWRKY25, 28, 33, 53 and 75, could potentially activate the downstream JA/ET signaling pathway or cell death. Moreover, BnWRKY70 might also negatively regulate JA/ET signaling pathway while BnWRKY6 possibly modulates the expression of PR1 gene, culminating in cell death, which would benefit the infection and growth of necrotrophic fungi [114, 118]. MPK3, one of mitogen-activated protein kinases, was also observed to be induced by S. sclerotiorum in our previous microarray study , and MPK3 in Arabidopsis is a positive regulator of AtWRKY22/29 . Solid and dashed arrows represent likely or putatively positive regulation of the downstream targets while open blocks indicate negative regulation of the downstream genes.