Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (QPCR) analysis of the effects of transgenes on the expression of host genes. Total RNA isolated from leaf tissue of X, XS, and XAS plants was subjected to QPCR analysis using primers specific for the indicated genes as described in the Methods section. Relative transcript expression levels of each target were normalized with respect to actin and the transgenic values reflect fold change expression compared to non-transgenic (X) controls. Six biological replications were used to calculate mean values and standard deviations. Bars mark the standard deviation of the average. The line across the figure indicates the normalized level of 1 in the non-transgenic control.