Simplified phylogenetic tree of the Hawaiian mint relationships. Phylogenetic analyses based on (a) 5S-NTS nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) and (b) chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) show the position of the endemic Hawaiian mints within the Stachys lineage . The cross, likely indicative of an interlineage reticulation event , shows the different positions of Mesoamerican and temperate North American Stachys species with respect to one another and the Hawaiian mints. Taxa marked with an asterix (*) are those with fleshy nutlets (excluding the Hawaiian genus Haplostachys). These, including the monotypic genus Bostrychanthera, are the only taxa with fleshy fruits in the entire subfamily Lamioideae.